Chapter%208%20Outline%20for%20posting - Chapter 8 Outline...

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Chapter 8 Outline I. What Are Antioxidants and How Do Our Bodies Use Them? A. Antioxidants are compounds that protect our cells from the damage caused by oxidation. B. Oxidation is a chemical reaction in which atoms lose electrons. 1. Molecules are composed of atoms. a. An atom is an infinitely small but unique unit of matter. 2. Atoms are composed of particles. a. The nucleus is the positively charged central core of the atom. b. Electrons are negatively charged and orbit the nucleus. 3. During metabolism, atoms exchange electrons. a. Oxidation is a loss of electrons. b. Reduction is a gain of electrons. C. Oxidation sometimes results in the formation of free radicals. 1. Energy metabolism involves oxidation and gives rise to free radicals. 2. Other factors can also cause free radical formation. D. Free radicals can destabilize other molecules and damage our cells. antioxidant, p. 264 E. Antioxidants work by stabilizing free radicals or opposing oxidation. 1. Antioxidant vitamins work independently by donating their electrons or hydrogen molecules to free radicals to stabilize them and reduce oxidative damage. 2. Antioxidant minerals function as cofactors within complex antioxidant enzyme systems that convert free radicals to less damaging substances that are excreted. a. Superoxide dismutase converts free radicals to less damaging substances, such as hydrogen peroxide. b. Catalase removes hydrogen peroxide by converting it to water and oxygen. c. Glutathione peroxidase removes hydrogen peroxide and stops the production of free radicals in lipids. II. A Profile of Nutrients That Function as Antioxidants A. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin. 1. Tocotrienol does not appear to play an active role in our bodies. 2. Tocopherol compounds are the biologically active forms of vitamin E. 3. The primary function of vitamin E is as an antioxidant. a. Its action specifically protects polyunsaturated fatty acids and other fatty components of our cells and cell membranes. b. Vitamin E is critical for normal development of nerves and muscles.
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2010 for the course FSHN FSHN 120 taught by Professor Rebeccaroach during the Spring '09 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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Chapter%208%20Outline%20for%20posting - Chapter 8 Outline...

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