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Comparisons+of+content+theories - el of id— ill as ’88...

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Unformatted text preview: el- of id— ill- as ’88 lp m re- \T ne re, t a :s~ in its of :er ad [61‘ ds 1m )le ’6 . 01' rte ls. rs, 1r- 3n Chapter 5 Motivation: Background and Theories 143 FIGURE 5.4 A Graphic Comparison of Four Content Theories of Motivation —+l Higher- order needs we Basic needs Motivators Hygiene conditions Each of the content theories purports to present the clearest, most meaningful, and most accurate explanation of motivation. One conCept that few of the content theories ad— dresses explicitly, however, is the quality of work done by the employee. Do employees have a need to perform so that a high quality ot‘product or service is the outcome? Or is it management’s job, to a large degree, to get employees excited about and invoived in making highwquality goods? At PepsiCo, parent company of Pepsi—Cola, Frito-Lay, Quaker Foods, Gatorade, and many others, managers feel that the answer to both ques- tions is yes.50 PepsiCo attempts to address both areas by encouraging all of its 143,000 employees worldwide to act as if they were the owner of a business, with the rationale that a sense of ownership and involvement in the company will generate the enthusiasm for producing the highest level of goods and services. SharePower is the name of the program at PepsiCo that enables all employees, not just upper—level executives, to earn stock options in the com- pany, each year totaling 10 percent of an employee’s pay of the previous year. This program not only gives employees a greater stake in the survival of the company, it also has helped to create a culture where all employees have a sense of both greater responsibility and an opportunity to contribute to the success of their part of the larger organization. The OB in the Real World feature on page 145 further addresses the issue of when and why employees “go the extra mile" for their organizations. SharePower is PepsiCo’s answer to the question, How can we best become a world— cIass competitor"? Any theory of motivation claiming to be complete in today’s turbulent environment must directly address issues of quality and quality improvement as they are impacted by the strategies of today’s organizations. The process theories of motivation describe how employees are motivated or how they select behaviors to meet their needs and determine whether they made the most successful ...
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