MGT+4375+Chapter+4+Review+Notes

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CHAPTER 4 INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR AND DIFFERENCES VARIABLES THAT IMPACT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES -ability – trait (innate/nature or learned/nurture) for something mental or physical -skill – task related -job analysis – above two often combined with knowledge to describe a job -demographics -gender -race PERCEPTION – “Perception is reality.” -how people organize and interpret their impressions of environmental stimuli -stages -attention and selection/selective screening -organization – schema or cognitive frameworks based on experience -interpretation – reasons behind the action -retrieval -impression management -social networks ATTRIBUTION – what meaning we give to the behavior of others -is their behavior internally caused (dispositional) or externally caused (situational) -distinctiveness – is different behavior displayed in different situations?  -consensus – would everyone in this situation respond this way? -consistency – does the person always behave this way? -fundamental attribution error is that we tend to overestimate the influence of internal factors and  underestimate external factors -self-serving bias – in our own case, we tend to give ourselves credit for good things that happen and blame  external events for the bad.  For example, the stock market in 2000:  we were great investors until all the  external forces cause market failure -factors that influence perception -stereotyping
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