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World Econ History Midterm Outline

World Econ History Midterm Outline - HUNTER-GATHERERS...

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HUNTER-GATHERERS Origin and Diffusion: Africa, spread to Asia and Europe Optimal Productive Unit: Clan size around 30-50 people Hunting party 6-12 men (want 2 hunting parties so higher chance of getting food) Utilization of Any Surplus: Not usually much surplus, unless very successful hunt Technological Change: Fire better health, more leisure time Boomerang Vegetable-based poisons Compound spear At-latl = new tools developed by hunter gatherers to exploit natural environment after ice age Sleds = increased mobility Domestication of Dogs: increased productivity of hunting, dogs could track wounded animals, pull sleds Fishing Impact on the Social/Cultural System: Fire better sanitation, cave artwork Technological developments after ice age & esp. fishing allow hunter- gatherers to settle down a little more, quality of life improved Political power held by council of elders because old men could advise young hunters where the best hunting was Religion based on ancestor worship But, as hunter-gatherers settle down into fishing villages, Shaman replaces role of council of elders In fishing villages, more gender equality as women produce vegetable foodstuffs Shaman the doctor of the clan, and after establishing that role moves into the realm of prophecy and replaces village elders as the person who intercedes with the spirits
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PASTORALISM Origin and Diffusion: Domestication began in the Zagros Mountains with wild sheep (but dog might have come earlier) See movement historically down the “steppe gradient” West and South into better pastures (modern day Hungary, Ukraine) Optimal Productive Unit: Max of 300 people in pastoralist clan Not likely to take orders from anyone but close kin Confederacies : political system in which smaller entities maintain a very high degree of autonomy Could unite pastoralists in common defense (ex: against farmers) or in getting new pasture from other pastoralists Would occasionally recognize a supreme leader (ex: Genghis Kahn) for a specific purpose (ex: better pasture) but no established succession Regimes headed by pastoralists are short-lived and are quickly superseded by “native dynasty” of farmers Utilization of Any Surplus: Expand the herd size Beasts of burden-horses, camels Production of woolen garments to use as trade goods Pastoral community far more efficient in consumption of animals than hunter gatherers Technological Change: Domestication Wheel Compound bow (pastoralists excellent mounted warriors, esp. mounted archers) Impact on the Social/Cultural System: Pastoralism allows opportunity to greatly increase material well-being in life Operated as traders because came into contact with many peoples— would trade stone tools to farmers in exchange for food Shaman dominant figure in pastoralist clans Islam is the ideal religion for pastoralists because not temple-based (13 th century)
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World Econ History Midterm Outline - HUNTER-GATHERERS...

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