Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 PLANNINGPROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES...

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Chapter 8: PLANNING—PROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES CHAPTER 8 OVERVIEW Through planning, managers attempt to look into the future and make decisions that will facilitate goal accomplishment. Planning thus serves as the primary management function, setting the stage and providing a foundation for the manager’s efforts to organize, lead, and control. The fundamentals of planning are presented in this chapter along with guidelines for good planning. The chapter begins by examining the role of planning as a management function, including its relationships with the other functions. The formal planning process and the benefits of planning are then discussed. Next, the chapter discusses the types of plans that managers use; these include short-range, medium-range, and long-range plans; strategic and operational plans; policies and procedures; and budgets and projects. The chapter also describes the planning tools and techniques of forecasting, contingency planning, scenario planning, benchmarking, use of staff planners, and participation and involvement. The chapter then shifts to a discussion of controlling, another of the management processes and one which is directly linked to planning. Controlling is a process of measuring and taking action to ensure desired results. Management requires control in order to ensure goal accomplishment and to avoid chaos. The discussion of controlling begins with an examination of the importance of controlling and the elements of the control process. Specific types of controls are then described before moving on to examining internal and external control approaches. Next, management by objectives (MBO) is examined from the perspective of an integrated planning and controlling technique. Information is provided regarding how MBO is used and how to ensure its success. Finally, various organizational systems that facilitate control are discussed.
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Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 PLANNINGPROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES...

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