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Chapter 14: MOTIVATION THEORY AND PRACTICE CHAPTER 14 OVERVIEW Motivation to work describes the forces within the individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work. While most people are very interested in the topic of motivation, they also tend to hold strong biases concerning the processes through which motivation is achieved. This chapter provides a well-rounded perspective of the different factors that influence people’s motivation. The chapter begins by describing the major theories of work motivation are examined in detail. Four content theories of motivation are discussed. These are Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and McClelland’s acquired-needs theory. Three process theories of motivation are also examined. These include equity theory, expectancy theory, and goal- setting theory, all of which are cognitively based. Reinforcement theory, which uses environmental consequences to explain motivation, is explored next. The chapter concludes with a discussion of job design and how it can motivate workers. CHAPTER 14 STUDY QUESTIONS SUMMARY Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? Motivation involves the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work; simply put, a highly motivated person works hard. Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs suggests a progression from lower-order physiological, safety, and social needs to higher-order ego and self-actualization needs. Alderfer’s ERG theory identifies existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Herzberg’s two-factor theory points out the importance of both job content and job context to motivation and performance. McClelland’s acquired needs theory identifies the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power, all of which may influence what a person desires from work. Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Adams’s equity theory recognizes that social comparisons take place when rewards are distributed in the workplace.
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People who feel inequitably treated are motivated to act in ways that reduce the sense of inequity; perceived negative inequity may result in someone working less hard in the future. Vroom’s expectancy theory states that Motivation = Expectancy × Instrumentality × Valence. Expectancy theory encourages managers to make sure that any rewards offered for
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2010 for the course MG 390 taught by Professor Borah during the Spring '10 term at North Alabama.

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