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MCB+102+F10 lecture 13

MCB+102+F10 lecture 13 - Proteins can span the membrane...

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Unformatted text preview: Proteins can span the membrane using beta strands (7-9 aa length) or alpha helices (20-25 aa length). Beta strands in a barrel motif form an open pore. Alpha helices can pack to leave a central aqueous channel. A great diversity of packing arrangements are possible, but side chains facing the fatty acid chains must be hydrophobic. Outside I gltfiiv lllllllt _,. ill ll . "1 a! . . f1“! " '1‘ h I . ToIC photosynth- Ic reaction center 1 ofa Lir le bacterium transporter . '3' '3' Top VIEW salt excretion glucose metabolism Aldnsternne (ngflH Prednisulune Prednisune Glycobiology -|V|ene- and disaccharides ("sugars") -Oligesaccharides -Pelysaccharides (starch, glycogen, cellulose) -Glycecenjugates -Glycelipids (blood groups antigens) -Glycepreteins (membrane 8c secreted) -Preteeglycans (extracellular matrix) Glycobiology | | —c— + H20 H—C—OH | | Alkane Water Carbohydrate 1 (HD Aldehyde = "Aldose" I H—-%"—DH El-IIUH D sugars --"“"'"—* a thlrnldllmll m/ \ Inn 1 z H—I|:—I:IH Hn-—c—-H 3 H-—L——UH H_—%-—DH 4 I'll-llflfl EHfl‘JH /""""""\ Epimers /""'"“'\ 1 CHD CHD 2 III—1%}! HO—L—‘H 3 H—i—UH H—JZ—fl'l'l 4 H— —UH —'fl'H 5 1mm! ngH 7“" 7m"? CHE! CHE! CHI} (HD I I I _ ........ I. ....... : H—E—flH HD—C-H H—nH EHu—c—H : H-l-UH H-l-EH PEP-Jfi-fli :¥;:;3::;. H-L-—flfl H—-l-flHIflJ L—nfl HU-L—-H 1 1 3 4 H—E—flH H—C—GH H—DH H—IE—«DH HD—i—H HD—E—HEHD—E—HE HD—E—H 5 HFl—flI-I H—JI—flfl Hflfl HF'IL-"flH H—L—flH H—l—OH‘I‘u-I-itlah H—L—flH E LI-hDH JIH1DH I'll-lgfll-I (l.l-I-_uDH IIJHiflH lHfiH JIH 1DH Illflgflfl I-lllnn hum:- II-E-Im I-lunnm I-Eulnn I-llul n-Elhflm II-Tllnll 1 a HICHlDH 2 I """""-— Keto group— — "Ketose" 3 EHIDH fllirllrflmhll , l 0%,, CH2DH 'I f """'--u.., 1 awfcI-tlnfl a | I: 3 H—C—DH HD—I:':—H 4 H—c—aI-I H._..:._DH n-Ilflwlnn I-Irlulnu -/\ /\ D CH DH “-21.5" DH D EH DH D “W! I if. 1 Ext! 1 H—D—DH Hj—H H—JI—DH HO—JI—H H—C—DH H—E—DH HD—C—H Hu—c—H H—C—DH H—"E-‘DH H—fl—DH H—C—DH I I I I :14an EHIDH cquH CH1DH l-I'lllllll I-Frulhfl II-Snrhull I-‘lllllnfl Hexoses (and pentoses) cyclize fl HO OR' \/ “CH/x +HOR ‘_R/c.\1_I Aldehyde Altollol Hemimeflll I HCHgflH O H‘NT’H Ffl'llll "71%“ :TH1DH H mm H~33% H ,f-OH 11- II- Glulnpyrnnua "a 3 _H = "~ TH >99“/ H;TT—0H "cf/CT 3 Effifi-‘n D AND me ['5 H—ST—DH H 1\OH \ CHan 15 CHz'DH @' H n-filmnu Ho ' H {npen-chainfurm} H a“ “67% <1 "A: B-n-Glulnpyrunnfl R/E\ + HOB" R' HO OH" \/ ..._ c R/ \R. Ketone Alcohol llemikelul I 1 Farm 0 cnlcm :- REC/f "oHic #:0ch £11on \ /°" 0 HO—(L—H “—5.c H OH 3 _ H | OH f1 __ H H H—{IZ—OH - Rxl 4| "0/ 37% " °" "' sl—U" H OH H ficnzon II-l-‘rlulnse u-n-Frucinlurunnsa (open-chain farm) {a cyclic farm of fructose) NH: fl-n-Gaimsamlne ,B-u-Hannusmnlne- H on H - aHH Cflzflfl fl-n-filummnm n-Glucnnlt: n-filmnu—fl-Iactnne N-Acetylneu raminic “M {I siali: acid] Sugar polymerization: O-glycosiclic bond formation CHEOH CHZOH hemiacetal O H H He/+ H H DH HO 0H KHD OH H H H OH alcohol H OH a-n-Glucuse fl-n-Glucnse hydrolysis candensatinn H21} Hlfl 5CH20H ECHEUH 5 5 acetal hemiacetal "J H OH H DH Disaccharide Maltnse (red LlCi n g) u—n—glucopyra nosyl-l1—>4)-n—glucupyranuse Fehling's reaction detects free reducing end precipitate Diet/OH 2+ + H— —OH Cu Cu —)- Cult) '5 i £- HO—T—H H—(II—OH : CH10H A bright red Some other "famous" and "familiar" disaccharides Reducing Lactose {,3 form} fi-u-galactupyranusyI-H Adl-fifln-glumpyrflnuse Gall fi1—3-4JEI: Non-reducing Sucruse fl-n-fructufuranasyl a-D-glucnpyranuside FruIZfi-c—z-MIGII: E Glclu‘IHZfllFru Non-reducing Trehaluse a—D—glucupyrannsyl u-D-glucupyranuside Glcirfl H1 HIE-II: Examples of Glycan (Polysaccharide) Chain Organization Homopolyseccharides Heteropolyseccharides Unhranched Branched No Multiple monomer monomer types, types. unbranched branched TAB LE T-2 Polymer Starch itmylcse itmylceectjn Slyccgen Cellulcse Chitin Destran Peatiduglycan Agaruse Hyalurcnate {a glyccsamtnc— sateen] Erect Hame— Huma- Hamb- Huma- Huma- Ham-a- Heterc-: decades attached Hetera- Hetera-: acidic Repeating unit1 {at 1—seiSIc. linear {a- parse. with (a: 1-+E}Glt'.: branches every 24-30 residues {er l—eaifilc. with [Eel—15mm branches every 3-12 residues {Bi—wilGlc rat—arcane: iat—r-Sl-Slc. with (a: 1—35} branches 41Mur2ncifi1—sai Glctlnciiai Sia-Ealtfll—>4}S.fi- anhydrc-L-Salteri 4]GIBA{BI—a3] Glchlnctfi 1 Structures and Rules cf Same Pelysaceltarides Size {number at manusacchanide uni ta} Efl-Elflflfl Up In iflfi Ur} tn fiflflflfl Up tc 15.flflfl tiery large Wide range Very large LDDD Uc tc tflflflflfl 'Each palyrner is classified as a hamupalysaccharide {name-J ur hetercpulysacctrartde {hetero-J. i‘lhe abbreyiated names fur the neptiduglycan. agareae. and hyalumnate repeating units indicate that the pulymer cuntains repeats at this disaeebaride unit. Fer erramgrler in peptideglyean. fire Glcl‘rlAe at line disaceharide unit is {Bl—rdi-Iinlred tn the first residue at the nest disaeeharide uniL Haiesx’signiiicance Energy sac-rage: in plants Energy stcrage: in bacteria and animal cells Structural: in plants. giyes rigidity and strength tu cell walls Structural: in insects, spiders. crustaceans, Elias rigidity and strength ta esuslteletbns Structural: in bacteria: esbacellular adhesiye Structural: in bacteria: giyes rigidity and strength tu cell enyelcpa Structural: in algae. cell wall material Structural: in yenebrates. extracellular matrix cf slrirr and ccnnectiye tissue; yisccsity and tubricaticn in jcints Starch and Glytogen (Cl-1,4 linkages) Amylase— n0 branching Amylopectin— 1 branch per ~30 can-1,4 linkS Glycogen— 1 branch per ~10 can-1,4 links We can't digest cellulose, but termite gut pretists and some fungi and bacteria can. Cellulose-degrading enzymes release glueese units and would be useful in industry for biomass to fuel cenversien. CHIEF" DlltH DH 1 (Imam Cellulnse {B1 441m: repeats Glycopretein: conjugate of protein and oligosaccharide, wth protein mass typically but not always dominant. (a) O-linked (b) N-Iinked '1 Nate the eerine L? f (-U— linked) CH; f HDCH; a {-0 Dr asparaglne H H a H [an H H D H—fli—CHI—tICH ('H' linkEd) _ DH H Dd” _'|:1H DH H II.” protein Side Cnaln H 1 | u ” that Is the Site H [Ian I" J H rim { of covalent linkage. {=0 C=D t"; 1-1.3 GalNAc Sar GlcNAc Asn Examples: Examples: at “ml I. Glcflfic 0 Man 0 Gal C} Nausm: T Fm: Y GalNAc SarfT hr Example of a secreted glycepretein I Ser Glycusaminuglycun Repeating disucchuride Number of disucchurides . Per chain EH25” In the extracellular matrix between cells and between cm- ”a. tissues cf multicellular HID ' ' Hyalumnate H H D [1314} organisms, lcng chains cf W carbohydrate blay rcles ' including structural stability, flexibility and tensile strength. Chendraitin 4-sulfate 20— 60 Lipopolysaccharide: Conjugate of lipid and carbohydrate D-Epecific chain lipid A The carbohydrate segment projects from the outer membrane and is a major antigen in our immune response to infection by gram-negative bacteria. Lectins are carbohydrate binding molecules that show high affinity and high specificity for their target carbohydrate structure. Mannose 6-phosphate binding to the Man 6-phosphate receptor. The phosphate group and the sugar are bound specifically by a network of numerous H-bonds within a shape-complementary binding pocket, and a bound metal ion (Mntt) gives additional coordination bonds. Glycnprntein ligand fur integrin Glycaprntein ligand for P-selectln lntegrin Cel I-tO-Cell contact an Cl P-selectin signaling Often involve glycnprntein interactinns. {luminaryr endothelial ...
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