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final - Cytoarchitectonic similarities Each cortical layer...

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Cytoarchitectonic similarities Each cortical layer has a primary source of inputs and primary output target Each area has a connection in vertical axis (columnar and radial) and horizontal (lateral or horizontal connection) Cells with similar function array in radially aligned groups that span the cortical layer with axon that extend horizontally in cortex, linking functionally similar cells Pulvinar nuclei and medial dorsal nuclei are the two nuclei in the thalamus provide input to association cortex Pulvinar- parietal association Medial dorsal- frontal association Input comes from regions that have already processed info from primary and motor areas of the cortex- rather than directly from peripheral sense organs Association cortex receive direct projections from other cortical areas (corticocortical connections) Receive contralaterally corresponding and non- via corpus callosum and aneterior commissure- which are the interhemispheric connections Receive from sub-cortical areas- midbrain (dopamine), reticular formation (noradrergic and serotonergic), and brainstem and basal forebrain (cholinergic) Contralateral neglect Unaware of one side of things Parietal lobe is primary area governing attention Right parietal lobe mediates attention from both sides and left mediates only on right side Confirmed by tests asking subjects to focus on left/right visual field Parietal cortex activated when notices stuff, but not when ignores it Prosopagnosia- unable to recognize faces Temporal cortex important in recognizing faces Some cells respond to frontal view, others respond to profiles Prefrontal cortex is important in planning- principal sulcus Maximum activity during delay period Important for eye movement and complex motor sequences Prefrontal neurons are selective for each position in a motor sequence Left cerebral hemisphere is important for human language Brocas area- articulating language Wernicke’s area- understanding language Conduction aphasia- lesions connecting in temporal and frontal regions- like arcuate fasciculus- unable to respond even when communication is understood Split brain patients Corpus callosum and anterior commissure- connection between two hemisphere Shows lateralization of language
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Using left/right hand to describe an object Left hemisphere- patients could name objects held in right hand, but could not with left hand Left hemisphere can respond to written commands, right hemisphere respond to non-verbal stimuli Left hemisphere major language functions, right hemisphere- less but emotional coloring of language Language localization different in individuals Local blood flow different in testing different areas of language- reading, listening, saying, associating Also different areas of brain activated by different word categories- rather than individual words 7-8 hrs of sleep for adults
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