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3. Organization of nervous system

3. Organization of nervous system - 3 Organization of...

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3. Organization of nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) brain spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)- everything else Somatic motor system Somatic sensory system Autonomic motor system I. General a. Cell types/ functions i. Neurons 1. Sensory (afferent) a. Axons into CNS b. Cell body outside of CNS 2. Motor (efferent a. Axons coming out of CNS b. Cell bodies in CNS 3. Interneurons- inside of CNS 4. Collection of Cell bodies (soma) a. Ganglia- in PNS b. Nucleus- in CNS 5. Collection of axons a. Nerves- in PNS b. Tract- in CNS ii. Glial cells 1. Support, myelination, blood/brain barrier, other stuff II. CNS division a. Cerebral hemispheres i. (clockwise from forehead) Frontal lobe- personality, Somatic motor cortex, Central sulcus, Somatic sensory cortex, Parietal Lobe, Occipital lobe- vision, Temporal lobe, Hearing, Lateral sulcus ii. Cerebral cortex (neo cortex) 1. Grey matter- outside layer 2. White matter- inside layer- myelinated iii. Limbic hippocampus 1. Memory, emotion, sex drive iv. Olfactory bulbs- smell v. Basal Ganglia- misnamed, should be nucleus 1. Complex motor complex b. Diencephalon- between brain stem and cerebrum i. Thalamus 1. Relay station 2. All sensory goes through synapses in thalamus except olfactory; some motor synapses in thalamus ii. Hyper thalamus- hormone control, body functions iii. Pituitary- hormones c. Brain stem
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i. mid-brain ii. Pons-respiration iii. Medulla- control blood pressure, nausea/vomiting, swallowing iv. Cerebellum- mini cortex on the stem 1. Control motor coordination 2. Inputs from muscles 3. Input from cortex 4. Compares and adjusts 5. Lesions in cerebellum- “ataxia”, uncoordination- like drunk d. Spinal cord i. Spinal nerves 1. Motor leaves around same level 2. Sensory enters around same level ii. 5 divsions 1. cervical (neck)- 8 spinal neves- C1-C8 2. Thoracic- 12 3. Lumbar- 5 4. Sacral- 5 5. Coccygeal- 1 e. Orientation- relative to..- standard naming system i. Superior- closer to head ii. Inferior- away from head iii. Anterior (ventral)- to chest iv. Posterior (dorsal)- to back v. Medial- towards middle vi. Lateral- away from midline 1. Hand is lateral to elbow vii. Ipsilateral- on the same side of midline viii. Contralateral- on opposite sides of midline ix. Decussation- crossing the midline- right brain controlling left side III. Spinal Cord a. Anatomy i. White matter on outside- myelinated ii. Grey matter on inside iii. Dorsal, lateral, ventral horn iv. Dorsal root, dorsal root ganglia (DRG), Dorsal Ramus, Ventral root, ventral ramus 1. Dorsal root- sensory enters 2.
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