sisi gao report guide-1 - 1 Biology 181 Laboratory Reports...

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1 Biology 181 Laboratory Reports I. General Considerations A. Write the paper in past tense. You are reporting on something you have already done, not something you will do or are in the process of doing. B. It’s okay to use pronouns, especially in the results section, but don’t abuse the privilege. Also, plural pronouns are preferred. Example: We broke the test tube. C. Write this paper as if it were to be published in a scientific journal. For example, do not write sentences that state "in the lab the students did this. ..". Instead, write this paper for an audience that has no knowledge of Biology 181 and present the experiment as your own independent project. D. Style — The report must be typed, double-spaced with one inch margins all around (top, bottom, left & right). A workmanlike product is expected and spelling, grammar and readability will count in your report grade. Write this paper with the same care that you use in preparing papers for English classes. Have someone read the paper over if you're not a careful writer. Also, look over your hard copy to be sure the result is clean and presentable (no section headings found floating by themselves at the end of a page, etc.). E. Citations — Sources of information must be accurately acknowledged in any scientific article. Your report must cite at least four different sources of information, two of which must be an article from a primary research journal . When turning in your report, you must also turn in a copy of the first page of each paper or web page that you cite in your paper. If citing a book, copy the title page and the page with the cited information . You may use your lab manual as a book source, but make sure to cite it. Websites, such as Wikipedia, are not allowed. For examples of how to do in-text citations and how to structure your references section, please see the reference section. F. Remember to use the section headings. II. Structure of the paper The paper will be structured as a typical science journal paper. Each section is to be headed with the appropriate heading (you must use the headings that are underlined below ). A good way to check if you’re formatting the paper correctly is to actually look at a scientific paper. Title page — An example of a title page is provided as an attachment. Abstract This appears first in the paper, but is often written last. It is a short paragraph that summarizes your paper. The abstract: (1) states the major objectives and scope of the experiment, (2) describes the methodology used, (3) summarizes the results, and (4) states the major conclusions.
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Introduction The introduction describes the problem that was investigated and gives some background to orient the reader. Essentially, the introduction "sets up your story". The introduction should tell the reader what is already known about your general topic and then introduce your questions and hypotheses, explaining why they are interesting and relevant to our world. List alternative hypotheses that address your research question, even if you are not testing all of
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sisi gao report guide-1 - 1 Biology 181 Laboratory Reports...

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