Unit 4 - Chem 004 - Spring 2007 The Chemistry of Nutrition...

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1 Chem 004 - Spring 2007 Blackboard: http://blackboard.gwu.edu Office Hours: MW 3:10-3:55 PM, 1957 E street, room 213 or by appointment The Chemistry of Nutrition Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins Vitamins and Minerals Steroids Cholesterol, Sex Hormones The Chemistry of Nutrition - Outline Composition of the Human Body 20% 20% 60% Water Fats Proteins, carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus Water serves both as a reactant and a product in metabolic reactions, as a coolant and thermal regulator, and as a solvent. Macronutrients : carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Provide all the energy and most of the raw material for repair and synthesis
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2 Malnutrition and undernourishment Malnutrition : diet lacking in the proper mix of nutrients, even if the energy content of the food is adequate. Undernourishment : the daily caloric intake is insufficient to meet the metabolic needs. Percentage of water, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in several foods Of the nearly 90 natural occurring elements, H, C, N, O, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca, make up over 99% of the mass of our body
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3 Monosaccharides: simple carbohydrates - structural function in plant cells (cellulose) - short term energy storage (starch) Glucose a monosaccharide Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Monosaccharides (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Monosaccharides can undergo condensation reactions among themselves and form: dimers (disaccharides) oligomers (oligisaccharides, short polymers) polymers (polysaccharides) α -galactose fructose α -glucose sucrose alpha-glucose fructose + Disaccharides (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) galactose lactose alpha-glucose + + H 2 O + H 2 O
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4 The relative sweetness of some sugars and artificial sweeteners 500 saccharin 200 aspartame 0.2 lactose 0.7 glucose 1.7 fructose 1.0 sucrose Sweetnes Sweetener The energy needed to power biochemical reactions in cells is produced by burning carbohydrates: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O glucose How do living organisms store energy? In the form of starch : a very long polymer of a-glucose monomers n Starch a polysaccharide glucose glucose glucose glucose Complex carbohydrates (Polysaccharides) Many glucose molecules joined together into a long molecule Starch glucose in the alpha form energy storage humans digest starch Cellulose glucose in the beta form structural function (rigidity of plant cell walls) humans cannot digest cellulose Lactose and lactose intolerance - beta-linkage between glucose and galactose - can’t be enzymatically broken (lack of lactase ) - broken down by intestinal bacteria generating gases and lactic acid diarrhea 80% of the world’s population is lactose intolerant Lactose
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5 Types of starch Amylose Amylopectin Glycogen + 3 a fatty acid Fats and Oils Greasy, slippery, soft and low-melting (if solid), water insoluble Triglycerides +3 H 2 O a triglyceride glycerol Saturated fats: the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid contains only single C–C bonds. Unsaturated fats: the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid contains at
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2010 for the course CHEM 004 taught by Professor Zysmilich during the Spring '06 term at GWU.

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Unit 4 - Chem 004 - Spring 2007 The Chemistry of Nutrition...

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