Unit 5 - Chem 004 - Spring 2007 Psychotropic drugs The...

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1 Psychotropic Drugs Depression and Antidepressants “Recreational” Drugs Addiction, Tolerance and Dependence Chem 004 - Spring 2007 Blackboard: http://blackboard.gwu.edu Office Hours: MW 3:10-3:55 PM, 1957 E Street, room 213, or by appointment The brain Psychotropic drugs The brain is made up of billions of nerve cells (neurons) that communicate with each other using electrical and chemical signals. pain Certain parts of the brain govern specific functions. Nerve Cells Sensory nerves and motor nerves
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2 Nerve impulse How is the impulse transferred between neurons? synaptic vesicles synapse (~20mm) (fluid-filled gap) re-uptake transporters How is the impulse transferred between neurons? Neuromodulators: enhance or inhibit neurotransmission.
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3 Summary • Reactive Depression - Reaction to a particular situation. Lasts only a few days or weeks. Depression and Antidepressant Drugs - tricyclic antidepressant - when given to schizophrenic patients they became agitated - made depressed patients feel better • True, Melancholic, or Endogenous Depression - Lasts months or years. - Patient becomes apathetic, unable to function socially, isolated. Speech and body movements become slowed. Loss of appetite and sleeping problems. Discovery of antidepressant drugs: by accident in France in 1952 (H. Loborit, J. Delay, P. Deniker) Imipramine (Tofranil, Praminil): What causes depression? Not completely understood - First clue came from reserpine, a drug to reduce blood pressure. - Reserpine disrupts the vesicles that store the neurotransmitter Norepinephrine (NE) - Some patients become depressed and even suicidal How do antidepressant drugs work?
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4 Types of antidepressant drugs Re-uptake inhibitors Tricyclic antidepressants Block the uptake of neurotransmitters, mainly NE. Amoxapine, imipramine. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Inhibit the uptake of serotonin. Prozac® (Fluoxetine) Zoloft® (Sertraline) Celexa® (Citalopram) MAO Inhibitors Inhibit the monoamine oxidase enzyme. Nardil® (Phenelzine) Parnate® (Tranycypromine). Other amine transmitters involved in the control of mood: Dopamine 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5HT) Serotonin - Introduced in the USA in 1987 - By 1989 the costs of prescribing Prozac exceeded that of all antidepressants in the previous two years - Not only relieves depression, but also add a general “feel-good factor” - Even healthy, non-depressed people have been using Prozac Prozac Fluoxentine hydrochoride (N-methyl-3-phenyl-3-[(a,a,a-trifluoro- p -tolyl)oxy]propylamine hydrochloride) Paxil Zoloft Prozac - Relatively safe, even in large doses - It might cause headaches, insomnia,
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2010 for the course CHEM 004 taught by Professor Zysmilich during the Spring '06 term at GWU.

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Unit 5 - Chem 004 - Spring 2007 Psychotropic drugs The...

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