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final study guide

final study guide - BADM066 Organizational Behavior...

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BADM066 – Organizational Behavior Learning – Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience Behaviorism - a theory which argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner o Classical conditioning – a type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response o Operant conditioning – a type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment o Reinforcement schedules - the protocol for determining when responses or behaviors will be reinforced, ranging from continuous reinforcement, in which every response is reinforced, and extinction, in which no response is reinforced o Social Learning – the view that people can learn through observation and direct experience o Management by objectives – a program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress o Organizational behavior modification Perception – a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment Selective perception – selectively interpreting what one sees on the basis of one’s interests, background, experience, and attitudes Halo effect – drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Contrast effects – evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank high er or lower on the same characteristics Projection – attributing one’s own characteristics to other people Stereotyping – judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs o Types of biases: Overconfidence – individuals whose intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest are most likely to overestimate their performance and ability Anchoring – a tendency to fixate on initial information Confirmation – seek out information that reaffirms our past choices Availability – tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them
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Representation – inappropriately considering the current situation as identical to past ones Escalation of commitment – refers to staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence that it’s wrong Randomness error – tendency to believe we can predict the outcome of random events Winner’s curse – decision-making dictum that argues that the winning participants in an auction typically pay too much for the winning item Hindsight bias – tendency for us to believe falsely that we’d have accurately predicted the outcome of an event, after that outcome is actually known False consensus – Job Satisfaction – a positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics
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