World Econ History Final Outline

World Econ History Final Outline - OVERSEAS EMPIRES 3 Types...

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OVERSEAS EMPIRES 3 Types 1) Colonies of Exploitation Overseas empires that make profit; valuable territories Almost exclusively are territories w/ fairly dense agricultural population People who are disciplined to work from sun up to sun down and are pretty healthy on the whole There is an exportable product Transport costs are less than in similarly sized land-based empires but the number of products profitable to export is still limited Gold & silver bullion, spices, silk & fine cottons, luxury items, dyestuffs, 2) Sugar-Based Islands Sugar able of producing a profit No agricultural labor force Islands primarily in the Caribbean, initially populated by hunter-gatherers Sugar is extremely difficult crop to grow Required slave labor Mostly male slaves Acquisition costs in West & East Africa, transportation costs to Caribbean, high mortality on the journey Slaves that survived the journey generally unhealthy and weak Often a month gestation period where slave had to be cared for before he could work the plantation Demand for sugar high enough in Western Europe that sugar plantations profitable Sugar also profitable for the colonial power because sugar was heavily taxed 3) Colonies of Settlement Hunter-gatherer native population Won’t work as field hands Can’t extract profit from them Will have to bring a population that is ready to engage in agriculture to sustain itself and find some crops that are exportable and taxable Normally administrative costs exceed any profit the colonial power would be able to extract Political Implications From standpoint of colonial power, administrative costs are a dead loss Try to reduce costs of conquest and subsequent control No free entry into a colony of exploitation Sugar island, reduce administrative cots even more Administrative problem is avoidance or suppression of slave rebellion Don’t maintain a huge garrison because that’s expensive
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If have slave rebellion have warships circle the island and prevent food shipments from arriving (island depended on imported food b/c all land used for sugar) Slave rebellion not crushed by militia; slaves were valuable Reduce administrative costs in colony of settlement by providing for limited self- government Let settlers govern themselves, but colonial power keeps control of foreign policy Install tax gatherers; only way to make money from colony of settlement is to tax exports Social Implications Colony of exploitation will produce over time a very mixed population Creoles: progeny of parents born in colonial power; very few Mestizo: father of European descent and indigenous mother Women aren’t allowed to go to colonies of exploitation Constitutes bulk of population Substantial Indigenous population: divided into 2 parts 1) Live in village, give up so produce to feed urban population, work in mines, public projects 2) Move to city and adopt language and culture of colonial occupier Sugar Island Bulk of population is slaves Average survival rate only 7 years needed active slave trade
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World Econ History Final Outline - OVERSEAS EMPIRES 3 Types...

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