EXAM 1 Notes - 8/31/10 TUESDAY 1798 Jenner o British...

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8/31/10 TUESDAY 1798 – Jenner o British doctor, noticed that most of the people who survived small pox had skin marked with scars from the small pox The only ones who had beautiful skin were milkmaids o Did an experiment; (milkmaids developed a form of small pox called cow pox/only formed blisters) he took the fluid from the blisters and injected a boy, and later gave the boy small pox The boy didn’t get/die from small pox, he was resistant 1880 – Pasteur o Was working on chicken Cholera and wanted to figure out how he could prevent Cholera in chickens (it is a food source) o Prepared Cholera from Chickens , let it sit for a few weeks, Injected it into baby chickens, they survived o Realized that something had happened to the Cholera within those few weeks o Began to work with Rabies; took rabies from a dog, injected it into rabbits, isolated it from the rabbit’s brain and re-injected it into the dog, which lived o Coined the term “vaccine 1900 – Landsteiner, Ehrlich, (Precipitin reaction ) o Landsteiner: began to wonder why during blood transfusions, some died Started mixing blood from different people and came up with the blood types: A B, O Realized that there were natural products in the blood that causes red blood cells to clump (agglutinate)/ different blood types clump Developed agglutinate assay Determined the specificity of antibodies in terms of what antigenic sites they bind with o Ehrlich: father of immunology There are proteins in our serum that will fold appropriately according to pathogen to confer specificity (the preferred explanation for specificity) Ehrlich said the explanation was wrong. We inherit specificity. Specificity is derived from gene products 1940 – Chase o Was working with Tuberculosis, would give guinea pigs TB to see if they would get it Took serum from guinea pigs that were resistant to TB to see if it would create resistance Didn’t work Took the white cells of guinea pigs that were resistant to TB, then gave those to other guinea pigs, they were resistant Realized there is a cellular component to immunity Not just antibodies o Glick: Worked with chickens, looking at development; observed a mushroom-like lymphoid organs on the large intestines (not seen in rodents), cut it off Immunized the chickens and discovered that they did not make antibodies (deficient in antibody production) Showed that the bursa had a population of B Cells (bursa derived cells), that were derived from the bursa (a bursa is not found in humans) During this time, scientists showed that thymus produced T cells (Thymus derived cells), these played a role in rejection of skin grafts
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Used mice o McColluch & Till: did studies radiating mice, removed the spleens and noticed that there were no cells(hemopolytic system, “stem cells ”) inside; then took the bone marrow from mice with a deletion and inserted it into the mice spleen, the cells were repopulating
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EXAM 1 Notes - 8/31/10 TUESDAY 1798 Jenner o British...

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