Shepler+Chapter+1+Atkins+Jones+5e+_Quantum_+Student+Notes

Shepler+Chapter+1+Atkins+Jones+5e+_Quantum_+Student+Notes -...

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Chapter One Atoms: The Quantum World CHEM 1211K Fall 2010 1
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Objectives Understand the structure of the atom and gain familiarity with subatomic particles. Characterize the wave and particle nature of light. Energy, frequency, and wavelength The work of Rydberg with atomic spectra Correlate the duality of light to the dual nature of subatomic particles, the electron in particular. Combine the photoelectric effect, uncertainty principle, and the Schrodinger equation to develop an understanding of where electrons are located in the atom. Use quantum numbers to describe the most probably locations of electrons in atoms. Write electron configurations to describe the filling of electrons and correlate to the periodic table. 2
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Key Ideas Matter is composed of atoms The structures of atoms can be understood in terms of the theory of matter known as quantum mechanics, in which the properties of particles and waves merge. 3
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Why is quantum chemistry important? Atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter. Almost all the explanations of chemical phenomena are expressed in terms of atoms. This chapter explores the periodic variation of atomic properties and shows how quantum mechanics is used to account for the structures and therefore the properties of atoms. This material is the foundation for almost all explanations of chemistry. 4
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Characteristics of Electromagnetic Radiation (1.2) Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation , which consists of oscillating (time-varying) electric and magnetic fields. All forms of electromagnetic radiation transfer energy from one region of space to another. 5
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Important attributes of light: 6 Similar to Figure 1.7 Characteristics of Electromagnetic Radiation (1.2) Wavelength Amplitude Intensity
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Frequency is the number of cycles of a wave per second. Measured in Hertz (Hz) 7 Characteristics of Electromagnetic Radiation (1.2) Not in text
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The shorter the wavelength of light, the more oscillations pass a given point in one second. The longer the wavelength of light, the fewer oscillations pass a given point in one second. See Example 1.1 in your text. 8 Characteristics of Electromagnetic Radiation (1.2)
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10/15/10 Zumdahl Chapter 12 9 Similar to Figure 1.9 9
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When electric current is passed through a sample of H 2 gas, the sample emits light. Current “excites” hydrogen atoms to higher energies. Light is emitted as the atoms release energy. 10 Atomic Spectra (1.3)
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Atomic Spectra (1.3) 11 Figure 1.10 Images such as these are called emission spectra. ν= R 1 n 1 2 - 1 n 2 2 ae è ç ö ø ÷
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Section summary The observation of discrete spectral lines suggests that an electron in an atom can have only certain energies . 12
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY 1211 taught by Professor Shepler during the Fall '10 term at Georgia Tech.

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Shepler+Chapter+1+Atkins+Jones+5e+_Quantum_+Student+Notes -...

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