Shepler+V2+Condensed+Chapter+2+Atkins+Jones+5e+_Bonds_

Shepler+V2+Condensed+Chapter+2+Atkins+Jones+5e+_Bonds_ -...

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Chapter Two Chemical Bonds CHEM 1211K Fall 2010 1
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Objectives 2
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Key Ideas Bond formation is accompanied by a lowering of energy due to the attractions between oppositely charged ions or between nuclei and shared electron pairs. The electron configurations of individual atoms control how the atoms combine with one another. 3
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Why is it important? The existence of compounds is central to the science of chemistry. By seeing how bonds form between atoms, we come to see how chemists design new materials. Research into artificial blood, new pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, and the polymers used in materials such as compact discs, cell phones, and synthetic fibers is based on an understanding of how atoms link together. 4
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Chemical Bonds A chemical bond is the link between atoms. When a chemical bond forms between two atoms the resulting arrangement of the two nuclei and their electrons has a lower energy than the total energy of the separate atoms. 5
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Ionic bond Covalent bond 6 Chemical Bonds
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Ionic Bonds An ionic solid is an assembly of cations and anions stacked together in a regular array. Ionic solids are examples of crystalline  solids 7 Figure 2.1
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The Ions that Elements Form  (2.1) Atoms gain or lose electrons in such a way as to achieve noble gas configuration. The noble gas core configuration is called an octet . n s 2 n p 6 s -block metals and p-block metals in periods 2 and 3 p- block nonmetals and metals in periods 4 and lower 8
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The Ions that Elements Form  (2.1) When the d-block is occupied by electrons, (n-1)d-orbitals are lower in energy than the ns orbitals. Example: What is the electron configuration of the Fe 2+ ion? 9
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The Ions that Elements Form  (2.1) 10 Figure C.6 Figure C.7
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Section summary: To predict the electron configuration of a  monatomic cation, remove outermost  electrons in the order: np, ns, and (n-1)d. To form a monatomic anion, add electrons  until the next noble gas configuration has  been reached. The transfer of electrons results in the  formation of an octet (or duplet) of electrons  in the valence shell on each of the atoms. Metals achieve an octet (or duplet) by electron  loss and nonmetals achieve it by electron  gain. 11 The Ions that Elements Form  (2.1)
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Lewis symbols are a simple way to keep track of valence electrons when atoms form bonds. The element is represented by the chemical symbol. A single dot represents an electron alone in an orbital. A pair of dots represents two paired electrons sharing an orbital. 12
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY 1211 taught by Professor Shepler during the Fall '10 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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