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Oint- Paste-Cream-Gels-notes-2010

Oint- Paste-Cream-Gels-notes-2010 - School of Pharmacy...

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School of Pharmacy University of Wyoming Semisolid Dosage Forms PHCY 6100/Teixeira 1 TOPICAL DOSAGE FORMS: Ointments, Creams, Pastes, Gels, Magmas & other miscellaneous dosage forms Protect injured area from the environment & permit the skin to rejuvenate. Provide hydration, lubrication or produce an emollient effect (soothing and softening of the skin). Convey a medication to the skin or mucosa for a specific effect, either topically or systemically. Applied to the skin, eye, nose, vagina, and rectum. Topical dermatological products deliver drug into the skin (the target) to treat dermal disorders (topical absorption). Transdermal products deliver drugs through the skin (percutaneous absorption) to the general circulation for systemic effects (skin is not the target). Drug penetration from SEMISOLID dosage forms depends on: The surface area covered The condition of the skin The base used The use of occlusive dressings The amount of pressure applied and the vigor with which it is rubbed. OINTMENTS (unguent = unguentum , Latin) Def. Semisolid preparations for external application to the skin or mucous membranes. Soften or melt at body temperature Should spread easily Should not be gritty. Applications: usually used on dry, scaly lesions (oleaginous bases will keep drug on the skin longer); formulated as topical, rectal and ophthalmic. Classification: i. Non-medicated or ointment bases: white petrolatum, white ointment, hydrophilic petrolatum, cold cream, hydrophilic ointment, PEG ointment, etc. ii. Medicated: with drug(s) Composition: i. Active drug(s) ii. Stiffeners: waxes w/ high melting point (usually blended with oleaginous bases to enhance viscosity) iii. Humectants: glycerin, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 300 or 400, 70% sorbitol (decrease evaporation rate of water)
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School of Pharmacy University of Wyoming Semisolid Dosage Forms PHCY 6100/Teixeira 2 iv. Antioxidants: butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), ascorbic acid, sulfites, L-tocopherol (delay the rate of rancidification) v. Penetration enhancers: increase rate of penetration through the skin. vi. Preservatives: benzoates, phenols, benzoic acid, parabens, quaternary ammonium salts (prevent growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus_local infection). vii. Oleaginous components viii. Aqueous components ix. Emulsifying agents Preparation: i. Selection of appropriate OINTMENT BASE Drug release rate Enhancement of percutaneous absorption Occlusion of moisture (“if skin is dry, wet it; if it is wet, dry it”) Stability of drug Influence of drug on other components of formulation (consistency) Patient factors (dry skin, intact or broken skin) Types of Ointment Bases 1. OLEAGINOUS or HYDROCARBON BASES (Epidermic) I. None or very little skin penetration II. Insoluble in water III. Not water washable IV. Will not absorb water * V. Emollient VI. Occlusive VII. Greasy VIII. Examples: a. Petrolatum, USP, yellow petrolatum or petroleum jelly (VASELINE ® ) b. White petrolatum, USP: decolorized petrolatum (White VASELINE ® ) c.
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Oint- Paste-Cream-Gels-notes-2010 - School of Pharmacy...

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