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10/11/2010 1 LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS Solutions SOLUTIONS • USP 23: liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. TEIXEIRA SOLUTIONS: classification By route of administration ORAL TOPICAL Vaginal = douches Rectal = enemas OTIC NASAL OPHTHALMIC IRRIGATING PARENTERAL TEIXEIRA SOLUTIONS: classification By type of solvent – AQUEOUS Oral solutions • Syrups Aromatic waters – NON-AQUEOUS • Elixirs • Tinctures • Spirits Other: fluid-extract, collodion, liniment, oleaginous solutions TEIXEIRA
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10/11/2010 2 SOLUTIONS • ADVANTAGES – Homogeneous doses – Immediate availability for absorption Most routes of admin – Most routes of admin. – Pt. can’t swallow tablets/caps – Easy dose adjustment – Enteral feeding – Nursing home, psychiatric & incarcerated patients TEIXEIRA SOLUTIONS • DISADVANTAGES – Less stability than dry form – Solubility in acceptable solvents Taste + smell: additives – Taste + smell: additives – Bulk and weight of package – Bulk containers: dosage measurement errors TEIXEIRA SOLUTIONS: compounding principles Solubility of chemical(s) in solvent(s) Time to dissolve Ch i l( ) t i l ti Chemical(s) stay in solution Stability of chemical(s) in solution Preservation TEIXEIRA SOLUTIONS: preparation principles Comminution Trituration Micronization Viscosity of solvent(s) Solubilizing agent: levigation Agitation: stirrer, shaker, sonicator Temperature Hot plate Thermostatically-controlled mixing tanks TEIXEIRA
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