The Pineal Notes - ThePinealGland,Rhythms&Melatonin 1 1 2 3...

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The Pineal Gland, Rhythms & Melatonin 1. History and anatomy of the pineal 1. The synthesis and secretion of melatonin 2. Transmission of light information to the pineal 3. The SCN and activity rhythms 4. Melatonin entrains the SCN 5. Role in other physiological processes 6. Role in seasonal breeding
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GALEN GALEN (130-200 AD) (130-200 AD)  firs t writte n de s c riptio n DESCARTES DESCARTES (1662) (1662)  s tim ulus  to  pine a l c a m e   fro m  fro m  re tina ! Wa s  the  s e a t o f the  s o ul.
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A deep brain structure evolved from the  parietal eye
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Lecture Outline 1. History and anatomy of the pineal 1. Synthesis and secretion of melatonin 1. Transmission of light information to the pineal 2. The SCN and activity rhythms 3. Melatonin entrains the SCN 4. Role in other physiological processes 5. Role in seasonal breeding
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Synthesis and secretion of  melatonin Discovered by Alex Lerner (1958)   500 000  bovine pineals   mel-  from melanocyte  - tonin  from serotonin white dark Very  simple  molecule. Evolutionarily conserved  hormone Derived from the amino acid   Tryptophan
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serotonin tryptophan melatonin nig ht Trypto pha n  c o nve rte d to   s e ro to nin a ll  the  tim e S e ro to nin  c o nve rte d to  N- ac e tyl 5  hydro xytrypta m ine  b y  N- ac e tyltra ns fe ra s e .   This  is  the   RATE  LIMITING   ENZYME  o f  m e la to nin  bio s ynthe s is .
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The Pineal Notes - ThePinealGland,Rhythms&Melatonin 1 1 2 3...

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