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Unformatted text preview: Models and Mechanisms of Hyperalgesia and Allodynia JU RGEN SANDKU HLER Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria I. About This Review 707 A. Definitions 708 B. Hyperalgesia and allodynia as symptoms 711 C. Hyperalgesia and allodynia as diseases 711 II. Methods to Assess Hyperalgesia or Allodynia 711 III. Methods to Induce Hyperalgesia or Allodynia in Animals 711 A. Animal welfare issues: replace, reduce, refine 711 B. Drug-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia 712 C. Diet-induced hyperalgesia or allodynia 712 D. Anxiety level modulates pain sensitivity 715 E. Chronic stress induces hyperalgesia and allodynia 715 IV. General Conditions That Influence Induction of Hyperalgesia or Allodynia 715 A. Gender 718 B. Genotype 718 C. Age 718 D. Diet 718 V. Cellular Systems That Are Indispensable for Hyperalgesia and Allodynia 719 VI. Spinal Mechanisms of Hyperalgesia and Allodynia 720 A. General changes in spinal cord after induction of hyperalgesia and allodynia 720 B. Synaptic LTP 722 C. Intrinsic plasticity 729 D. Changes of inhibitory control 730 E. Changes in descending modulation 736 F. A -fiber-induced pain (mechanical allodynia) 737 G. Other potential mechanisms of hyperalgesia and allodynia 739 VII. Immune-Central Nervous System Interactions 740 A. The sickness syndrome 740 B. Role of spinal glia for allodynia and hyperalgesia 741 Sandku hler J. Models and Mechanisms of Hyperalgesia and Allodynia. Physiol Rev 89: 707758, 2009; doi:10.1152/physrev.00025.2008.Hyperalgesia and allodynia are frequent symptoms of disease and may be useful adaptations to protect vulnerable tissues. Both may, however, also emerge as diseases in their own right. Consid- erable progress has been made in developing clinically relevant animal models for identifying the most significant underlying mechanisms. This review deals with experimental models that are currently used to measure (sect. II ) or to induce (sect. III ) hyperalgesia and allodynia in animals. Induction and expression of hyperalgesia and allodynia are context sensitive. This is discussed in section IV . Neuronal and nonneuronal cell populations have been identified that are indispensable for the induction and/or the expression of hyperalgesia and allodynia as summarized in section V . This review focuses on highly topical spinal mechanisms of hyperalgesia and allodynia including intrinsic and synaptic plasticity, the modulation of inhibitory control (sect. VI ), and neuroimmune interactions (sect. VII ). The scientific use of language improves also in the field of pain research. Refined definitions of some technical terms including the new definitions of hyperalgesia and allodynia by the International Association for the Study of Pain are illustrated and annotated in section I ....
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