01ab - CHAPTER1 Biochemistry: An Introduction Overview...

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C H A P T E R 1 Biochemistry: An Introduction
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Overview Biochemistry = chemistry of life; study of molecular basis of life (biology). Why study biochemistry? Progress of biochemistry over the last century: from the beginning to understanding of life organization and evolution, revolution in medicine, agriculture, biotech. 1.1. What is life? No simple definition. Essential properties of life on Earth : 1. Complex, organized and self-sustained. Thousands of reactions involving relatively small number of biomolecules (C, O, H, N, P, S). Macromolecules (C-based polymers); biochemical pathways; cellular organells; tissues, organs in multicellular organisms). Hierarchy. Self-sustained through metabolism (energy, biosynthesis, waste disposal, regulation); homeostasis. 2. Cellular Membrane: protection and transport. 3. Information-based DNA – info storage; RNA, proteins, small molecules and their interactions – info processing. 4. Adaptable and evolving Common origin ! unity of life on Earth. From simple forms to more complex ones. Genetic adaptability though beneficial mutations.
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FIGURE 1.1 Life-Forms Near a Hydrothermal Vent Chronology of life: 4.8 B.y. (x 10 9 y.) Origin of planet Earth 3.8 B.y. Origin of life (prokaryotes) Thermophilic origin of life. 2.8 B.y. Origin of oxygenic phototrophic bacteria Oxygen metabolism; ozone 1.3 B.y. Origin of modern eukaryotes 0.8 B.y. Origin of metazoans 0.25 M.y. Origin of Homo sapiens
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FIGURE 1.3 The Domains of Life on Earth 1.2. The living world Three domains of Life based on rRNA seq., the molecular chronometer. 1. Bacteria (prokaryotes) - most single-cellular - most metabolically diverse - essential for biogeochemical cycles 2. Archaea (prokaryotes) - most single-cellular - many extremophiles 3. Eukarya - much larger cells (x10 2 -10 3 ) - cellular organelles (including organelles of the prokaryotic origin: mitochondria, chloroplasts) - (single- and) multicellular (complexity) Unity of life - common biochemistry! (“What is true for a E. coli is true for an elephant” J. Monod) Metabolism: mostly free of molecular oxygen.
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Course Overview (Syllabus) How to study
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1.3. Biomolecules Cell composition: 50-95% H 2 O; 1% inorganic ions (K + , Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ ) and organic molecules (C-C bonds) = derivatives of hydrocarbons. Important functional groups in
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2010 for the course MOLB 3610 taught by Professor Gomelsky during the Fall '10 term at Wyoming.

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01ab - CHAPTER1 Biochemistry: An Introduction Overview...

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