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04 - CHAPTER 4 Energy Biochemistry The Molecular Basis of...

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Biochemistry: The Molecular Basis of Life, 4/e McKee/McKee Copyright © 2009 by Oxford University Press, Inc. C H A P T E R 4 Energy
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Energy consumption is a requirement for life. Most energy in modern living organisms has ultimately been obtained from sun: Photosynthetic energy ! chemical energy ! heat Energy is the basic constituent of the universe that is intertwined with matter (condensed energy): E = mc 2 (Einstein), where E, total energy in a particle (J = kg m 2 /s 2 ) m, mass (kg) c, speed of light (3 x 10 8 m/s) Common perception of E = capacity to do work. Δ E = w + q, where Δ E, the change in energy of the system w, work; movement of an object by Force at a distance; (‘useful’) q, heat absorbed by the system; (‘useless’) Thermodynamics – study of energy transformations accompanying physical and chemical changes in matter. Bioenergetics - branch of thermodynamics dealing with living systems. Enthalpy , H = total heat content. Entropy , S = disorder. Free energy ( Δ G) = energy to do chemical work; a measure of spontaneity of reactions (involves H & S). Energy: Basics
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4.1 Thermodynamics System Surroundings Closed system = exchange of energy but not matter Open system = exchange of energy AND matter. All living systems.
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