Final-MOLB3610-2009

Final-MOLB3610-2009 - MOLB3610/
CHEM
3610

...

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Unformatted text preview: MOLB3610/
CHEM
3610

 FINAL
EXAM

(Σ 
100
pt
=
max)

 
 
 
 Your
name
(print):
 
 
 Your
signature:
 12/10/09
 
 
 P L E A S E 
W R IT E 
O N L Y 
O N 
T H E 
D E S IG N A T E D 
“ A N S W E R ” 
S H E E T S 
A N D 
 F R O N T 
P A G E ,
IF 
N E C E S S A R Y .
 
 A N S W E R S 
W R IT E N 
O N 
T H E 
“ Q U E S T IO N S ” 
S H E E T S 
W IL L 
B E 
 IG N O R E D .
 1 Multiple
choice
questions

 E a c h 
c o r r e c t 
a n s w e r 
is 
3 
p t 
( Σ 
5 4 
p t 
m a x 
f o r 
a l l 
M u l t ip l e 
c h o ic e 
q u e s t io n s ) .

 Q
 A
 1
 2
 

 

 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
 10
 11
 12
 13
 14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 Σ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 1 .
W h ic h 
o f
t h e 
fo l l o w in g 
a d e q u a t e l y 
d e s c r ib e s 
m a jo r 
d iffe r e n c e s 
b e t w e e n 
t h e 
e u k a r y o t ic 
 D N A 
a n d 
t h a t 
o f
p r o k a r y o t e s :
 1 .
W h ic h 
c h a r a c t e r is t ic 
is 
N O T 
a p p l ic a b l e 
fo r 
a l l 
l ife 
o n 
E a r t h ? 

 a .

 C e llu la r 

 b .

 S e lf‐ s u s t a in in g 

 c .

 I n fo r m a t io n ‐ b a s e d 

 d .

 A d a p t a b le 
a n d 
e v o lv a b le 
 e. D e p e n d s o n s o la r e n e rg y 2 .
H y d r o g e n b o n d s : a . A re w e a k e r th a n c o v a le n t b o n d s b u t s tro n g e r th a n io n ic b o n d s b . O c c u r b e tw e e n p o la r m o le c u le s h a v in g h y d ro g e n a to m s a tta c h e d to c . A re re la tiv e ly u n im p o rta n t, a s f e w io n s e x is t w ith in c e lls d . A re w e a k e r th a n c o v a le n t b o n d s b u t s tro n g e r th a n v a n d e r W a a ls f o rc e s e . A re im p o rta n t in c h e m is try b u t u n im p o rta n t in liv in g o rg a n is m s 3 .
W h ic h o f th e f o llo w in g s p e c ie s c a n f o r m b u f f e r s y s te m s ? a. NaHPO4 & NaH2PO4 b. H C l c. N aC l & H C l d. CH3COOH & KNO3 e. NH4OH 4 .
W h ic h o f th e f o llo w in g r e a c tio n s c a n N O T b e d r iv e n b y c o u p lin g to th e h y d r o ly s is o f A T P to A M P ? The ΔG°’ value for each reaction is indicated in parentheses in units of kJ/mole. ATP + H2O ! AMP + PPi (-32.2) a . P y r u v a te + P i ! p h o s p h o e n o lp y r u v te ( + 3 1 .7 ) b . G lu c o s e + P i ! g lu c o s e - 6 - p h o s p h a te ( + 1 3 .8 ) c . A c e tic a c id ! a c e tic a n h y d r id e ( + 9 9 .6 ) d. Maltose + H2O ! 2 glucose (-15.5) e. glygylglycine + H2O ! 2 glycine (-9.2) 5 .
W h ic h 
o f
t h e 
fo l l o w in g 
a m in o 
a c id s 
a r e 
p o l a r ? 

 a . A la n in e 
a n d 
g ly c in e 

 b . P h e n y la la n in e 
a n d 
t y r o s in e 

 c . S e r in e 
a n d 
a s p a r a g in e 

 d . L y s in e 
a n d 
a r g in in e 
 e . P r o lin e 
a n d 
is o le u c in e 
 
 6 .
T h e 
m a jo r 
e ffe c t 
o f
a n 
e n z y m e 
o n 
a 
r e a c t io n 
is 
t o :

 a. K e e p 
t h e 
s u b s t r a t e s 
a n d 
p r o d u c t s 
a p a r t 

 b. L o w e r 
t h e 
e q u ilib r iu m 
c o n s t a n t 

 c. R a is e 
t h e 
e q u ilib r iu m 
c o n s t a n t 

 d. R a is e 
t h e 
a c t iv a t io n 
e n e r g y 

 e. L o w e r 
t h e 
a c t iv a t io n 
e n e r g y 
 
 2 7 .
W h ic h 
b o n d 
( a ,
b ,
c ,
d ,
e ) 
is 
a 
p e p t id e 
b o n d ? 
 
 8 .
W h ic h 
o f
t h e 
fo l l o w in g 
is 
N O T 
a 
h o m o p o l y s a c c h a r id e ? 

 a .

 P o l y ‐ N ‐ a c e t y l g l u c o s a m in e 
 b .

 C e l l u l o s e 

 c .

 L a c t o s e 

 d .

 G l y c o g e n 
 e .
 S t a r c h 
 
 9 .
A c c u m u l a t io n 
o f
w h ic h o f
t h e 
fo l l o w in g 
c o m p o u n d s 
is 
l ik e l y 
t o 
in h ib it 
g l y c o l y s is 
in 
t h e 
a e r o b ic a l l y 
 g r o w n 
c e lls ? 

 a . G lu c o s e ‐ 6 ‐ p h o s p h a t e 

 b . F r u c t o s e 

 c .
 A D P 

 d . C it r a t e 

 e . 
 
 O 2
 
 1 0 .
W h ic h 
o f
t h e 
fo l l o w in g 
r e a c t io n s 
is 
c a t a l y z e d 
b y 
a n 
o x id o r e d u c t a s e ? 

 a . A c e t y l‐ C o A 
+ 
o x a lo a c e t a t e 
! 
C o e n z y m e 
A 
+ 
c it r a t e 

 b . 
 
 I s o c i t r a t e 
 + 
 N A D +
 ! 
 c a r b o n 
 d i o x i d e 
 + 
 α ‐ k e t o g l u t a r a t e 
 + 
 N A D H 
 
 c .

 C it r a t e 
! 
is o c it r a t e 

 d .

 S u c c in y l ‐ C o A 
+ 
G D P 
! 
s u c c in a t e 
+ 
G T P 
+ 
C o A 
 e . 
 
 F u m a r a t e 
 + 
 H 2O 
 ! 
 m a l a t e 
 
 1 1 .
W h il e 
n e a r l y 
e q u iv a l e n t 
in 
r e d o x 
p o t e n t ia l ,
N A D H 
a n d 
N A D P H 
o f t e n 
f u n c t io n 
in 
d if f e r e n t 
 m e t a b o l ic 
a c t io n s .
W h ic h 
o f 
t h e 
f o l l o w in g 
s t a t e m e n t s 
c a p t u r e s 
t h e 
d if f e r e n c e s 
b e t w e e n 
N A D H 
a n d 
 N A D P H ? 

 a .

 N A D H 
is 
p r im a r ily 
in v o lv e d 
in 
c a t a b o lis m 
a n d 
N A D P H 
in 
a n a b o lis m 

 b .

 N A D H 
is 
p r im a r ily 
in v o lv e d 
in 

a n a b o lis m 
a n d 
N A D P H 
in 
c a t a b o lis m 

 c .

 N A D P H 
fu n c t io n s 
o n ly 
u n d e r 
t h e 
a n a e r o b ic 
c o n d it io n s 

 d .

 N A D P H 
is 
g e n e r a t e d 
in 
t h e 
p e n t o s e 
p h o s p h a t e 
p a t h w a y 
a n d 
u s e d 
in 
g ly c o ly s is 

 e .

 N A D P H 
is 
a 
c o e n z y m e 
f a c il it a t in g 
t h e 
t r a n s p o r t 
o f 
g l u c o s e 
in t o 
c e l l s ,
w h il e 
N A D H 
is 
a 
 c o e n z y m e 
u s e d 
b y 
lig a s e s 
 
 1 2 .
T h e 
m e t a b o l ic 
fu n c t io n 
o f
t h e 
m it o c h o n d r ia l 
e l e c t r o n 
t r a n s p o r t 
c h a in 
is 
 a . t o 
g e n e r a t e 
A T P 
v ia 
s u b s t r a t e ‐ le v e l
p h o s p h o r y la t io n 

 b . t o 
g e n e r a t e 
p y r u v a t e 
fr o m 
g lu c o s e 

 c . t o 
g e n e r a t e 
N A D H 
fo r 
t h e 
T C A 
c y c le 

 d . t o 
g e n e r a t e 
t r a n s m e m b r a n c e 
p r o t o n 
g r a d ie n t 

 e . t o 
fix 
c a r b o n 
d io x id e 
u s in g 
s o la r 
e n e r g y 
 
 
 
 
 3 1 3 .

B io l o g ic a l 
m e m b r a n e s 
a r e 
c o m p r is e d 
m o s t l y 
o f
p h o s p h o l ip id s 
a n d 
n o t 
o f
t r ia c y l g l y c e r o l s 
b e c a u s e 
 p h o s p h o lip id s :

 a .

 A r e 
d e r iv e d 
fr o m 
s p h in g o m y e lin 
 b .

 A r e 
d e r iv e d 
fr o m 
ω ‐ 3 
fa t t y 
a c id s 
o f
t h e 
s t r u c t u r e 
h e a d s 
 c .

 H a v e 
c y c lic 
p o r t io n s 

 d .

 H a v e 
v e r y 
p o la r 
h e a d s 
 
 e .

 D o n ’t 
h a v e 
p o la r 
h e a d s 
 
 1 4 .

B e c a u s e 
t h e 
r e a c t io n s 
o f 
t h e 
C a l v in 
c y c l e 
c a n 
o c c u r 
in 
d a r k n e s s ,
t h is 
p o r t io n 
o f 
p h o t o s y n t h e s is 
is 
 o f t e n 
r e f e r r e d 
t o 
a s 
t h e 
d a r k 
r e a c t io n s .
A l t h o u g h 
t h e y 
c a n 
o c c u r 
in 
d a r k n e s s ,
in 
r e a l it y ,
t h e y 
t a k e 
 p la c e 
m o s t 
o ft e n 
in 
p e r io d s 
o f
s u n lig h t 
b e c a u s e :

 a .

 W h il e 
t h e 
f ir s t 
t w o 
s t a g e s 
o f 
t h e 
C a l v in 
c y c l e 
a r e 
in d e p e n d e n t 
o f 
l ig h t ,
t h e 
t h ir d ,
r e g e n e r a t io n ,
 s t a g e 
r e q u ir e s 
lig h t 
 b .

 S u n lig h t 
a c t iv a t e s 
t h e 
e n z y m e s 
o f
t h e 
C a lv in 
c y c le 

 c .

 T h e 
r e a c t io n s 
o f 
t h e 
C a l v in 
c y c l e 
r e q u ir e 
A T P 
a n d 
N A D P H ,
n e c e s s it a t in g 
s u n l ig h t 
f o r 
t h e ir 
 g e n e r a t io n 

 d .

 D a r k 
r e a c t io n s 
a r e 
t o o 
s in is t e r 
fo r 
life 
fo r m s 
o n 
t h is 
p la n e t 

 e .

 I n 
r e a l it y ,
n o 
s u n l ig h t 
is 
n e e d e d 
f o r 
e x t e n d e d 
p e r io d s 
o f 
C a l v in 
c y c l e 
o p e r a t io n 
 
 1 5 .


T h e 
in it ia l 
s t e p 
in 
c e l l u l a r 
c a t a b o l is m 
o f
a m in o 
a c id s 
is 
u s u a l l y :

 a .

 L o s s 
o f
t h e 
a c id 
fu n c t io n a l
g r o u p 

 b .
 C o n v e r s io n 
o f
t h e 
a c id 
g r o u p 
t o 
a n 
a ld e h y d e 

 c .
 C o n v e r s io n 
o f
t h e 
a c id 
g r o u p 
t o 
a n 
a lc o h o l

 d .

 E s t e r ific a t io n 
o f
t h e 
a c id 
g r o u p 
w it h 
a n 
a lc o h o l

 e .

 D e a m in a t io n ,
o r 
e l im in a t io n 
o f 
t h e 
n it r o g e n 
 
 1 6 .


T h e 
n u m b e r 
o f
t R N A 
s p e c ie s 
in 
a 
c e l l 
is 
s m a l l e r 
t h a n 
t h e 
n u m b e r 
o f
c o d o n s 
b e c a u s e 

 a .

 t R N A 
is 
r e c o g n iz e d 
w e ll
b y 
r ib o s o m e s 

 b .

 a n 
a n t ic o d o n 
o f
t R N A 
o ft e n 
r e c o g n iz e s 
m o r e 
t h a n 
o n e 
c o d o n 

 c .

 c e lls 
u s u a lly 
h a v e 
fe w e r 
u n iq u e 
c o d o n s 
t h a n 
t h e 
t o t a l
n u m b e r 
a llo w e d 
b y 
t h e 
g e n e t ic 
c o d e 

 d .

 K r e b s 
c y c le 
is 
n o t 
v e r y 
e ffic ie n t 
d u r in g 
t r a n s la t io n 

 e .

 p r o t e in s 
r e a d ily 
t o le r a t e 
in c o r p o r a t io n 
o f
w r o n g 
a m in o 
a c id s 
 
 1 7 .

W h ic h 
o f
t h e 
fo l l o w in g 
a d e q u a t e l y 
d e s c r ib e s 
t h e 
s t r u c t u r a l 
h ie r a r c h y 
o f
D N A 
( s m a l l e s t 
t o 
 c o m p le x ) :

 a .

 n u c le o t id e 
• 
c o d o n 
• 
g e n e 
• 
c h r o m o s o m e 
• 
g e n o m e 

 b .

 c o d o n 
• 
g e n o m e 
• 
n u c le o t id e 
• 
g e n e 
• 
c h r o m o s o m e 

 c .

 n u c le o t id e 
• 
c o d o n 
• 
g e n e 
• 
g e n o m e 
• 
c h r o m o s o m e 

 d .

 g e n e 
• 
n u c le o t id e 
• 
c o d o n 
• 
g e n o m e 
• 
c h r o m o s o m e 

 e .

 c h r o m o s o m e 
• 
g e n o m e 
• 
g e n e 
• 
n u c le o t id e 
• 
c o d o n 

 
 1 8 .

W h ic h 
s e q u e n c e 
r e p r e s e n t s 
t h e 
m R N A 
s y n t h e s iz e d 
fr o m 
t h e 
fo l l o w in g 
c o d in g 
D N A 
s t r a n d :
 5 ’­ A G G G G C C G T T A T C G T T ­ 3 ’
 
 a .

 b .

 c .

 d .

 e .
 5 ’‐ A G G G G C C G T T A T C G T T ‐ 3 ’
 3 ’‐ A G G G G C C G U U A U C G U U ‐ 5 ’
 5 ’‐ A G G G G C C G U U A U C G U U ‐ 3 ’
 5 ’‐ A A C G A U A A C G G C C C C U ‐ 3 ’

 3 ’‐ A A C G A U A A C G G C C C C U ‐ 5 ’
 
 4 Review/
Thought
questions
(Σ 46
pt
max
for
all
Review/
Thought
questions)
 
 1 .

6 
p t 

 D e t e r m in e 
t h e 
p H 
o f 
a 
s o l u t io n 
c o m p o s e d 
o f 
0 .3 
M 
a c e t ic 
a c id 
a n d 
0 .3 
M 
s o d iu m 
a c e t a t e .
T h e 
p K a 
f o r 
 a c e t ic 
a c id 
is 
4 .7 5 ;
p H 
= 
p K a 
+ 
l g 
( [ A ] / [ H A ] ) .

 
 2 .

6 
p t 

 U s in g 
t h e 
fo llo w in g 
t a b le 
o f
fr e e 
e n e r g ie s :

 A D P 
+ 
P i
! 
A T P 

 
 Δ G ° ’ = 
7 .3 
k c a l / m o l 

 G lu c o s e ‐ 1 ‐ p h o s p h a t e 
! 
G lu c o s e 
+ 
P i

 Δ G ° ’ = 
‐ 5 .0 
k c a l / m o l 

 C a lc u la t e 
t h e 
fr e e 
e n e r g y 
c h a n g e 
fo r 
t h e 
r e a c t io n :
G lu c o s e 
+ 
A T P 
! 
g lu c o s e ‐ 1 ‐ p h o s p h a t e 
+ 
A D P 

 
 3 .

9 
p t 

 a . 2 
p t 
G iv e 
t h e 
f u l l 
n a m e 
o f 
t h e 
a m in o 
a c id 
Y 
s h o w n 
o n 
t h e 
r ig h t .

 b . 4 
p t 
S k e t c h 
it s 
t it r a t io n 
c u r v e 
w it h 
N a O H 
( d o n ’t 
f o r g e t 
t o 
d e s ig n a t e 
t h e 
a x e s ,
p l a t e a u 
 p o in t s ) 

 c . 3 
p t 

D e t e r m in e 
t h e 
is o e l e c t r ic 
p o in t 
o f 
t h e 
a m in o 
a c id 
Y .

 T h e 
 p K a 
v a l u e s 
 a r e 
 a s 
 f o l l o w s : 
 a m i n o 
 g r o u p 
 = 
 9 . 1 , 
 c a r b o x y 
 g r o u p 
 = 
 2 . 2 , 
 a n d 
 s i d e 
 c h a i n 
 h y d r o x y l 
g r o u p 
= 
1 0 .0 .

 
 4 .

6 
p t 

 T h e 
 p e r o x i d a s e 
 f r o m 
 c l o s t r i d i a 
 h a s 
 a 
 K m 
 o f 
 2 
 m M 
 
 a n d 
 k c a t 
 o f 
 4 x 1 0 7 
 s ‐1 , 
 w h e r e a s 
 t h e 
 
 p e r o x i d a s e 
 f r o m 
 n e i s s e r i a 
 
 h a s 
 a 
 K m 
 o f 
 3 0 
 m M 
 a n d 
 k c a t 
 o f 
 4 x 1 0 5 
 s ‐1 . 
 
 C o m p a r e 
s u b s t r a t e 
a f f in it ie s 
a n d 
e f f ic ie n c ie s 
o f 
t h e s e 
t w o 
e n z y m e s .
 
 5 .

8 
p t 


 

 ( i) 


2 
p t 
W h a t 
a r e 
t h e 
e n t r y ‐ le v e l
s u b s t r a t e ( s ) 
a n d 
fin a l
p r o d u c t s 
o f
g ly c o ly s is ? 
 ( ii) 

2 
p t 
W h a t 
a r e 
t h e 
e n t r y ‐ le v e l
s u b s t r a t e ( s ) 
a n d 
fin a l
p r o d u c t s 
o f
K r e b s 
c y c le ? 
 ( iii) 
2 
p t 
W h a t 
a r e 
t h e 
m e t a b o lic 
p u r p o s e s 
o f
g ly c o ly s is ? 

 ( iv ) 
2 
p t 
W h a t 
a r e 
t h e 
m e t a b o lic 
p u r p o s e s 
o f
K r e b s 
c y c le ? 

 
 6 .

5 
p t 
E x p l a in 
w h y 
c o m p l e t e 
o x id a t io n 
o f
o n e 
m o l e 
o f
t h e 
C 1 8 :1 
fa t t y 
a c id 
( o l e ic 
a c id ) 
 g e n e r a t e s 
m o r e 
e n e r g y 
t h a n 
c o m p l e t e 
o x id a t io n 
o f 
3 
g l u c o s e 
m o l e s .

 U s e 
 t h e 
 f o l l o w i n g 
 a s s u m p t i o n s : 
 A c e t y l ‐ C o A 
 g o e s 
 t o 
 t h e 
 T C A 
 c y c l e ; 
 1 
 F A D H 2 
= 
 1 . 5 
 A T P ; 
 
 1 
N A D H 
= 
2 .5 
A T P .
 
 7 .

6 
p t 

 2 
p t 

D e s c r ib e 
t h e 
k e y 
s t e p s 
o f 
t r a n s l a t io n .

 4 
p t 

E x p l a in 
t h e 
f u n c t io n s 
o f 
d if f e r e n t 
t y p e s 
o f 
R N A 
m o l e c u l e s 
in v o l v e d 
in 
t r a n s l a t io n .
 
 
 5 B o n u s 
p o i n t s 
 A .
 5 
p t 

 E x p la in 
t h e 
p r o b le m s 
a s s o c ia t e d 
w it h 
u s in g 
a 
p o ly p e p t id e ’s 
p r im a r y 
s e q u e n c e 
t o 
d e t e r m in e 
 it s 
f in a l 
t h r e e ‐ d im e n s io n a l 
s h a p e .
D e s c r ib e 
h o w 
t h e s e 
p r o b l e m s 
a r e 
o v e r c o m e 
in 
v iv o .
 
 B .
 5 
p t 

 C o m p a r e 
a n d 
c o n t r a s t 
e le c t r o n 
t r a n s p o r t 
c h a in s 
o f
m it o c h o n d r ia a n d 
c h lo r o p la s t s 
 c o n s id e r in g 
t h e 
f o l l o w in g 
c a t e g o r ie s :
p u r p o s e s ,
s u b s t r a t e s ,
p r o d u c t s ,
f u n c t io n a l 
 c o m p o n e n t s .
 6 ...
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