Unformatted text preview: What is Pharmacy? What is Pharmacy?
John Vandel, Dean PHARMACY Pharmacy is a: Place Profession Business What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 2 Pharmacy a Place A place where medication is dispensed to a patient by a Registered Pharmacist. A place where Pharmaceutical Care is delivered. A placed where Medication Therapy Management (MTM) is practiced. What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 3 Pharmacy a Profession A profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and uphold themselves to and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recognized body of learning derived from research, education, and training at a high level, and who are prepared to exercise this knowledge and skills in the interest of others. What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 4 What is a Professional ? A person who provides, directly or indirectly, a vast range of services to a patient. A person motivated not solely or even primarily by economics or prestige. A person motivated by a desire to help, to be of service. A person with special knowledge and licensed to practice by an accepted credentialing body. Not everyone who practices is a professional. What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 5 Pharmacy a Business Owners or managers of a pharmacy business are business people as well as practitioners. They have two goals: 1) To care for patients 2) To create enough profit to stay in business What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 6 Brief History of Pharmacy 2600 B.C. – Babylon (Mesopotamia, Persia and now Iran. Practitioners were Priests, Pharmacists and Physicians all in one. 2000 B.C. – Chinese began Refined by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans Galen (A.D. 130200), a Roman who taught pharmacy and physicians the preparation and compounding of medications had his principles rule the Western World for 1500 years.
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 7 History of Pharmacy (cont.) Separation of pharmacy and medicine (300A.D.) Twin Arabian Brothers – “Patron Saints” of pharmacy and medicine. Damian the Apothecary Cosmos the Physician Arabs were the first to privately own apothecaries. European apothecaries began in the 17th century American apothecaries began in early 1700s. Christopher Marshall Philadelphia Hospital pharmacy started in Philadelphia in 1752 by Benjamin Franklin. Jonathon Roberts 1st Pharmacist What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 8 Evolution of Pharmacy Education 1905 New York law requiring all new registrants to possess a diploma from a recognized school of pharmacy. By 1910 there were: 50 Schools offering 2 years of study 20 Schools offering 3 years of study 12 Schools offering 4 year B.S. degree 4 Schools offering 5 year M.S. degree
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 9 Evolution of Pharmacy Education 1915 Flexner Report – Flexner, a respected medical education reformist, reported that Pharmacy was not a profession due to minimal education. U.S. War Department – Decided that due to minimal professional education registered pharmacists would not routinely receive commissions into the service. 1928 – AACP adopts the 4 year B.S. degree as the minimum course of study. Mandate went into effect in 1932
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 10 1950 – State of California started the first 6 year Pharm D programs. Others considered too radical. 1960 – AACP mandated the 5 year B.S. degree 199091 – AACP “Commission to Implement Change in Pharmacy Education” studied and then recommended the 6 year entry level Pharm D degree as the sole entry level degree. Reaffirmed in1996 1992 – AACP recommended the 6 yr. Pharm D 2002 85 accredited Colleges & Schools of Pharmacy offered the Pharm D as the first professional degree. 2010 – 94 Accredited, 18 Candidate, 8 PreCandidate What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 11 Evolution of Pharmacy Education Society and Pharmacy Society controls pharmacy by forming State Boards of Pharmacy who control pharmacy with the use of licensure, laws, and rules and regulations. State Boards of Pharmacy are charged with the responsibility of protecting the public by controlling pharmacy. What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 12 Society grants pharmacy much leeway in deciding how the profession is practiced. Outside the law, pharmacists have the power to shape the profession, make changes to improve the practice and make it better for patients. Pharmacy Governs the Profession What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 13 How do we govern ourselves?
1)Through organizations representing different areas of practice such as: American Pharmacists Association (APhA), American Society of HealthSystem Pharmacists (ASHP), American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP), American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP), American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), American College of Apothecaries (ACA), National Community Pharmacist Association (NCPA), and many more. What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 14 How do we govern ourselves? (cont.)
2) Through the House of Delegates of each organization. 3)Through Standards of Practice approved by each House of Delegates. 4)Through Consensus Conferences called by organizations prior to developing new, major standards of practice. (table 1.1 p. 10) 5)Conference Proceedings and White Papers. What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 15 How do we govern ourselves? (cont.)
6) Study Commissions Organizations commission expert panels 7) Leadership Distinguished service by many leaders 8) Peer Review Basis for review is the law, rules and regulations and practice and ethical standards
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 16 How do we govern ourselves? (cont.) Pharmacy Ethics Pharmacy is a collegial profession in that pharmacists feel the honor of the profession and respect what has been handed down from one generation to the next. Pharmacist subscribe to a code of ethics that has been handed down and updated through decades. What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 17 How do we govern ourselves? (cont.) Pharmacy Ethics (cont.) Ethics are standards of conduct. A code of ethics does more than spell out rules of conduct, it is what is distinctive about the good pharmacist versus the technically expert pharmacist. Ethical behavior in pharmacy dates back to 1852 when the newly organized APhA obliged its members to subscribe to a strict code of ethics. The code has been updated several times over the years. (tables 1.4 &1.5) What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 18 Effect of Societal Issues on Pharmacy (laws and regulations) 1906 – Pure Food & Drug Act Prior to this law many drugs were not effective, mislabeled, and unsafe for consumption. The law enabled authorities to exact penalties for misbranded and adulterated drugs. The law was not well written resulting in many loop holes that allowed offenders to avoid prosecution.
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 19 1938 Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act Effect of Societal issues on Pharmacy After 73 deaths due to the elixir of sulfanilamide this law was passed that gave the FDA greater authority to enforce standards of safety and efficacy of drug products. What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 20 Effect of Societal issues on Pharmacy 1951 DurhamHumphrey amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Created the “legend drug” that mandated on the label the warning “Caution: Federal law prohibits dispensing without a prescription”. Pharmacists could no longer dispense these drugs without a prescription from a physician. What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 21 Effect of Societal issues on Pharmacy 1951 (cont.) At this time APhA inserted into their code of ethics that “The pharmacist does not discuss the therapeutic effects or composition of a prescription with a patient”. This relegated the pharmacist largely to the dispensing of presynthesized drug products. What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 22 1973 – Health Maintenance Organization Act (HMO) – Paved the way for managed care organizations to garner more of the health insurance market. 1973 – Millis Commission Report suggested that pharmacists were inadequately prepared in system analysis, management skills, communications and behavioral and social sciences.
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 23 Effect of Societal issues on Pharmacy Effect of Societal issues on Pharmacy The Millis report and the ASHP Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy report started the clinical pharmacy movement that captured the drug use control concept forwarded by Dr. Don Brodie and promoted the role of the pharmacist as therapeutic advisor promoted by Drs. Doug. Hepler and Linda Strand. 1995 – The AACP Commission to Implement Change in Pharmacy education recommended the 6 year Pharm D as the entry level degree into the profession.
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 24 Pharmacy Track to Practice Six year Pharm D degree Internship Licensure Postgraduate Training Residencies and Fellowships Specialty Certification Continuing Education Postgraduate Education M.S., M.A., MBA, PhD
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 25 Characteristics of Pharmacists Skills and Traits – Empathy, Selfconfidence, Organized, Assertive, Common Sense, Analytical, Critical Thinker, Problem Solver, Pays Attention, Team Player, Lifelong Learner Character – Pharmacists relate to patients in a special way. Pharmacist promise to help patients make the best use of their medicine and in return patients allow access to confidential information. This results in a legal duty to the patient.
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 26 Characteristics of Pharmacists Virtues Benevolence Truthfulness Respect Friendliness Justice Fidelity Habits Empathy Translating Complexity into Simplicity Recognizing and Acting on the Obvious
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 27 What does a Pharmacist Do? Quality Controller More than a dispenser of medication Oversee the process of using medication Oversee the appropriateness of the medication for each patient. Caregiver The patient is the primary focus of the pharmacist.
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 28 What does a pharmacist do? (cont.) Clinician Uses their knowledge of disease, drug therapy, and drug literature evaluation to communicate with the patient, to assess the patient and to advise physician and other health care providers regarding the patient’s medication therapy. Advisor Advises patient on use of medication & health.
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 29 What does a pharmacist do? (cont.) Teacher Fulltime faculty at a school or college. Teach others at practice site Manager/Supervisor/Leader Management positions in large pharmacies, hospitals, managed care and the pharmaceutical industry.
What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 30 What does a pharmacist do? (cont.) Owner Be an entrepreneur and work for yourself. Researcher Perform basic science and research on drugs. Perform research in social, administrative and management pharmacy areas. Sales Representative Work for a pharmaceutical company Quality Reviewer Drug Utilization Review for institutions What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 31 Pharmacist’s Future Supply and Demand Rewards Job Satisfaction Stress Lifelong Learning Job Outlook What is Pharmacy? PHCY 6185 32 Summary of Pharmacist Help patients make best use of their medication Patient is their main focus Rigorous education & licensed to protect patient Vigilant about providing quality drug therapy Empathetic and care about the patient Proud members of a trusted profession
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- Fall '08
- Pharmacist, Pharmacy Ethics Pharmacy, Schools of Pharmacy, Hospital Pharmacy