Acid - 3 to[CO 2 be Where did this number come from 9 Why...

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Acid-Base Study Guide [1] 1. What is pH? Can you calculate [H + ] from pH and vice-versa? Can you verbally describe the relationship between pH and [H + ]? 2. What is an acid? a base? 3. What is a buffer? What happens when you add another acid or base to a solution that contains a buffer? 4. What does the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation tell you? What is the pKa (mathematically and verbally)? Why do we care about pKa? 5. Why is acid-base balance so important? What is the normal pH range? What are acidosis and alkalosis? What are some potential causes of each? 6. What are the three mechanisms by which your body maintains acid-base homeostasis? How fast does each of them operate? 7. What is the H-H equation for the bicarbonate buffer system? Why can we replace [HCO 3 - ] with (P aCO2 )(0.03) [The arterial partial pressure of CO 2 times its solubility coefficient]? 8. To maintain blood pH at normal levels, what must the ratio of [HCO
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Unformatted text preview: 3-] to [CO 2 ] be? Where did this number come from? 9. Why is hemoglobin a good buffer? Why is phosphate a good buffer? (Hint: think pKa’s and amounts in the body). 10. What are the relative contributions to buffering in your body from the three buffering systems? 11. How do your lungs manipulate pH? What are the relationships between ventilation, alveolar P CO2 , plasma P CO2 , [H + ], and pH? 12. What happens to hydrogen ions and bicarbonate in the tubules of the nephron? How does this differ between the proximal and distal tubules? 13. What are the four categories of acid-base disturbances? What are the causes, consequences (in terms of pH), and compensatory responses for each? [1] Use Chapter 19, pp. 556-564, and Chapter 17, pp. 502-504 of Stanfield and Germann as well as your lecture notes and tutorial sessions to answer these as completely as possible....
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Acid - 3 to[CO 2 be Where did this number come from 9 Why...

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