chapter 14 - Chapter 14: Fluids and Electrolytes MULTIPLE...

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Chapter 14: Fluids and Electrolytes MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The nurse assesses that the patient’s urine has become much more concentrated, which res- ults from the effect of: 1. adrenaline. 2. aldosterone. 3. antidiuretic hormone (ADH). 4. insulin. ANS: 2 Aldosterone acts on the kidney tubules, affecting water retention and its attendant urine con- centration. 2. When the water absorption in the renal tubules becomes greater than normal, the nurse anti- cipates that the urine will become: 1. more concentrated 2. less concentrated 3. more alkaline 4. less alkaline ANS: 1 When more water is kept back in the body, the water left to form urine is less; therefore, the urine is more concentrated. 3. The nurse explains that when oxygen is directed out of the arteries and into the capillaries, this process is: 1. active transport. 2. diffusion. 3. filtration. 4. osmosis. ANS: 2 Diffusion is the movement from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentra- tion.
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4. The patient’s IV has been infusing at a very high rate and now the patient appears to be in fluid volume overload, as indicated by: 1. hypotension. 2. tachycardia. 3. pulmonary edema. 4. kidney failure. ANS: 3 An IV infusing at a high rate is used to increase intravascular fluid volume, but there is an equalization level, after which the patient goes into fluid overload; this results in pulmonary edema. 5. A small child is hospitalized with severe metabolic acidosis after ingesting a whole bottle of baby aspirin about 8 hours ago. The nursing care for this patient is geared toward reassuring the patient and: 1. IVs as ordered, but without sodium bicarbonate. 2. frequent assessment of mental and neurological status. 3. daily weights and vital signs. 4. inducement of vomiting. ANS: 2 The baby aspirin was ingested too long ago to have vomiting or stomach aspiration be of any use. The child requires frequent assessment of neurological function because he or she may need mechanical ventilation. 6. The nurse explains that fluids carrying nutrients and wastes on a random basis throughout the body are carried primarily by: 1. filtrates. 2. extracellular fluid. 3. intracellular fluid. 4. osmolytes. ANS: 2 The blood and lymph are the main media for transport of nutrients and wastes in the body. 7. The nurse clarifies that electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, when dissolved, break down into smaller particles, which are called: 1. cells.
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2. elements.
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2010 for the course HNSC HNSC 6.1 taught by Professor Katz during the Spring '10 term at CUNY Brooklyn.

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chapter 14 - Chapter 14: Fluids and Electrolytes MULTIPLE...

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