Rav65819_ch07_119-14 - *118 chapter concept outline 7 How Cells Harvest Energy LIFE IS DRIVEN BY ENERGY All the activities organisms carry outthe

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***118 chapter 7 How Cells Harvest Energy concept outline LIFE IS DRIVEN BY ENERGY. All the activities organisms carry out—the swimming of bacteria, the purring of a cat, your thinking about these words—use energy. In this chapter, we discuss the processes all cells use to derive chemical energy from organic molecules and to convert that energy to ATP. Then, in chapter 8, we will examine photosynthesis, which uses light energy to make chemical energy. We consider the conversion of chemical energy to ATP first because all organisms, both the plant, a photosynthesizer, and the caterpillar feeding on the plant, pictured in the photo are capable of harvesting energy from chemical bonds. Energy harvest via respiration is a universal process. 7.9 Oxidation Without O 2 Methanogens use carbon dioxide Sulfur bacteria use sulfate Fermentation uses organic compounds as electron acceptors 7.10 Catabolism of Proteins and Fats Catabolism of proteins removes amino groups Catabolism of fatty acids produces acetyl groups A small number of key intermediates connect metabolic pathways Acetyl-CoA has many roles 7.11 Evolution of Metabolism The earliest life forms degraded carbon-based molecules present in the environment The evolution of glycolysis also occurred early Anaerobic photosynthesis allowed the capture of light energy Oxygen-forming photosynthesis used a different source of hydrogen Nitrogen ±xation provided new organic nitrogen Aerobic respiration utilized oxygen introduction 7.1 Overview of Respiration Cells oxidize organic compounds to drive metabolism Cellular respiration is the complete oxidation of glucose Electron carriers play a critical role in energy metabolism Metabolism harvests energy in stages ATP plays a central role in metabolism 7.2 The Oxidation of Glucose: A Summary 7.3 Glycolysis: Splitting Glucose Priming changes glucose into an easily cleaved form
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ATP is synthesized by substrate-level phosphorylation NADH must be recycled to continue respiration 7.4 The Oxidation of Pyruvate to Produce Acetyl-CoA 7.5 The Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle has three segments: An overview The Krebs cycle is geared to extract electrons and synthesize one ATP Glucose becomes CO 2 and potential energy Following the electrons in the reactions reveals the direction of transfer 7.6 The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis The electron transport chain produces a proton gradient The gradient forms as electrons move through electron carriers Chemiosmosis utilizes the electrochemical gradient to produce ATP ATP synthase is a molecular rotary motor 7.7 Energy Yield of Aerobic Respiration The theoretical yield for eukaryotes is 36 ATP per glucose molecule The actual yield for eukaryotes is 30 ATP per glucose molecule 7.8 Regulation of Aerobic Respiration ***119 7.1 Overview of Respiration Plants, algae, and some bacteria harvest the energy of sunlight through photosynthesis, converting
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2010 for the course BIO BIO1 taught by Professor Lipke during the Fall '09 term at CUNY Brooklyn.

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Rav65819_ch07_119-14 - *118 chapter concept outline 7 How Cells Harvest Energy LIFE IS DRIVEN BY ENERGY All the activities organisms carry outthe

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