rav65819_ch10_185-204

Rav65819_ch10_185-20 - 2.5 m 10 chapter How Cells Divide introduction ALL SPECIES OF ORGANISMSbacteria alligators the weeds in a lawngrow and

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How Cells Divide introduction ALL SPECIES OF ORGANISMS —bacteria, alligators, the weeds in a lawn—grow and reproduce. From the smallest creature to the largest, all species produce offspring like themselves and pass on the hereditary information that makes them what they are. In this chapter, we examine how cells, like the white blood cell shown in the figure, divide and reproduce. Cell division is necessary for the growth of organisms, for wound healing, and to replace cells lost regularly, like the cells in your skin and in the lining of your gut. The mechanism of cell reproduction and its biological consequences have changed significantly during the evolution of life on Earth. The process is complex in eukaryotes, involving both the replication of chromosomes and their separation into daughter cells. Much of what we are learning about the causes of cancer relates to how cells control this process, and in particular their propensity to divide, a mechanism that in broad outline remains the same in all eukaryotes. 10.6 Cytokinesis: The Division of Cytoplasmic Contents At anaphase, the chromatids separate During telophase, the nucleus re-forms concept outline 10.1 Bacterial Cell Division Binary Fssion is a simple form of cell division Proteins control chromosome separation and septum formation 10.2 Eukaryotic Chromosomes Chromosome number varies among species Eukaryotic chromosomes exhibit complex structure 10.3 Overview of the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle The cell cycle is divided into Fve phases The duration of the cell cycle varies depending on cell type 10.4 Interphase: Preparation for Mitosis 10.5 Mitosis: Chromosome Segregation During prophase, the mitotic apparatus forms During prometaphase, chromosomes attach to the spindle In metaphase, the centromeres align In animal cells, a belt of actin pinches off the daughter cells
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In plant cells, a cell plate divides the daughter cells In fungi and some protists, daughter nuclei are separated during cytokinesis 10.7 Control of the Cell Cycle A brief history of cell cycle control The cell cycle can be halted at three checkpoints Cyclin-dependent kinases drive the cycle In multicellular eukaryotes, many Cdks and external signals act on the cell cycle Cancer is a failure of cell cycle control 185 rav65819_ch10_185-204.indd 185 rav65819_ch10_185-204.indd 185 1/2/07 5:57:07 PM 1/2/07 5:57:07 PM 10.1 Bacterial Cell Division Bacterial cell 1. Prior to cell division, the bacterial DNA molecule replicates. The replication of the double-stranded, circular DNA molecule that constitutes the genome of a bacterium begins at a specific site, called the origin of replication (green area). The replication
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2010 for the course BIO BIO1 taught by Professor Lipke during the Fall '09 term at CUNY Brooklyn.

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Rav65819_ch10_185-20 - 2.5 m 10 chapter How Cells Divide introduction ALL SPECIES OF ORGANISMSbacteria alligators the weeds in a lawngrow and

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