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AP_Lecture_Exam_I_Review - 1. Anatomy and Physiology What...

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1. Anatomy and PhysiologyWhat is anatomy? What is physiology?Levels of OrganizationOrgan SystemsMajor OrgansFunctionMedical examinationPhysical examinationPrecordial landmarksMedical TerminologyAnatomical LandmarksAnatomical regionsDirectional terminologySectional anatomyMedical ImagingRadiologyBody CavitiesMembranesHomeostasisPositive FeedbackNegative Feedback
4. The Tissue Level of OrganizationIdentify the four major types of tissues in the body, and describe their roles.Discuss the types and functions of epithelial tissue.Describe the relationship between structure and function for each type ofepithelium.List the specific functions of connective tissue, and describe the three maincategories of connective tissue.Compare the structures and functions of the various types of connectivetissue proper and the layer of connective tissue called fasciae.Describe the fluid connective tissues blood and lymph, and explain theirrelationship with interstitial fluid in maintaining homeostasis.Describe how cartilage and bone function as supporting connective tissues.Explain how epithelial and connective tissues combine to form four types oftissue membranes and specify the functions of each type.Discuss the basic structure and role of nervous tissue.Describe how injuries affect the tissues of the body.Describe how aging affects the tissues of the body.5. Integumentary SystemCutaneous MembraneEpidermisThe superficial epithelium is made of keratinized stratified squamous epitheliumDermisMade of connective tissue, two layersFunctions:Protection of underlying tissues and organsExcretion of salts, water, and organic wastesMaintenance of normal body temperature
Production of melaninProduction of keratinSynthesis of vitamin D3Storage of lipidsDetection of touch, pressure, painCoordination of the immune responseSubcutaneous layerAKA hypodermis or superficial fasciaEpidermisEpidermis is avascular (like all epithelial cells). Nutrients and oxygen diffuse fromcapillaries in the dermisKeratinocytes are the body’s most abundant epithelial cells. Contain large amounts ofkeratinTwo types of skin:Thin skin covers most of the body and has four layers of keratinocytesThick skin covers the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, has five layers ofkeratinocytesLayers of the skin:Stratum basale is one layer thick and is mitotic and alive. Cells of the stratumbasale includebasal cells (aka germinative cells), stem cells, melanocytes, andMerkel cellsAttached to basement membrane via hemidesmosomes. Basementmembrane increase SA and strengthen attachment between epidermisand dermis.Epidermal ridges are the basis of fingerprintsSpecialized structures of stratum basale:Tactile discs AKA Merkel cells with sensory nerve endings arefound in hairless skin. Responds to touch.Melanocytes contain the pigment melanin and are scatteredthroughout the stratum basale.

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Stratum Corneum, APOCRINE SWEAT GLANDS

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