rav65819_ch17_325-348

rav65819_ch17_325-348 - ;;;;;;;;; 17 0.3 mm chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: ;;;;;;;;; 17 0.3 mm chapter Biotechnology introduction OVER THE PAST DECADES, the development of new and powerful techniques for studying and manipulating DNA has revolutionized biology. The knowledge gained in the last 25 years is greater than the rest of the history of biology. Biotechnology also affects more aspects of everyday life than any other area of biology. From the food on your table to the future of medicine, biotechnology touches your life. The ability to isolate specific DNA sequences arose from the study and use of small DNA molecules found in bacteria, like the plasmid pictured here. In this chapter, we explore these technologies and consider how they apply to specific problems of practical importance. n The polymerase chain reaction accelerated the process of analysis n Protein interactions can be detected with the two-hybrid system n Expression vectors allow production of speciFc gene products n Genes can be introduced across species barriers n Cloned genes can be used to construct knockout mice concept outline 17.5 Medical Applications n Human proteins can be produced in bacteria n Recombinant DNA may simplify vaccine production n Gene therapy can treat genetic diseases directly 17.6 Agricultural Applications n The Ti plasmid can transform broadleaf plants n Herbicide-resistant crops allow no-till planting n Bt crops are resistant to some insect pests n Golden Rice shows potential of GM crops n GM crops raise a number of social issues n Pharmaceuticals can be produced by biopharming n Domesticated animals can also be genetically modiFed 17.1 DNA Manipulation n Restriction enzymes cleave DNA at specifc sites n DNA ligase allows construction oF recombinant molecules n Gel electrophoresis separates DNA Fragments n TransFormation allows introduction oF Foreign DNA into E. coli 17.2 Molecular Cloning n Hostvector systems allow propagation oF Foreign DNA in bacteria n DNA libraries contain the entire genome oF an organism n Reverse transcriptase can make a DNA copy oF RNA n Hybridization allows identifcation oF specifc DNAs in complex mixtures n Specifc clones can be isolated From a library 17.3 DNA Analysis n Restriction maps provide molecular landmarks n Southern blotting reveals DNA diFFerences n DNA sequencing provides inFormation about genes and genomes 17.4 Genetic Engineering 325 rav65819_ch17_325-348.indd 325 rav65819_ch17_325-348.indd 325 11/17/06 4:22:59 PM 11/17/06 4:22:59 PM 17.1 DNA Manipulation Restriction sites Eco RI Eco RI The ability to directly isolate and manipulate genetic material was one of the most profound changes in the field of biology in the late 20th century. The construction of recombinant DNA molecules, that is, a single DNA molecule made from two different sources, began in the mid-1970s. The development of this technology, which has led to the entire field of biotechnology, is based on enzymes that can be used to manipulate DNA....
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2010 for the course BIO BIO1 taught by Professor Lipke during the Fall '09 term at CUNY Brooklyn.

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rav65819_ch17_325-348 - ;;;;;;;;; 17 0.3 mm chapter...

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