rav65819_ch18_349-368

rav65819_ch18_349-368 - ;;;;;;;; 18 chapter Genomics THE...

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Unformatted text preview: ;;;;;;;; 18 chapter Genomics THE PACE OF DISCOVERY IN BIOLOGY in the last 30 years has been like the exponential growth of a population. Starting with the isolation of the first genes in the mid-1970s, researchers had accomplished the first complete genome sequence by the mid-1990sthat of the bacteria species Haemophilus influenzae, shown in the picture (genes with similar functions are shown in the same color). By the turn of the twenty-first century, the molecular biology community had completed a draft sequence of the human genome. Put another way, scientific accomplishments moved from cloning a single gene, to determining the sequence of a million base pairs in 20 years, then determining the sequence of a billion base pairs in another 5 years. The sequence of events is not linear since all are overlapping to some extentbut it is as though the first automobile had been invented on a Monday, then manufactured on an assembly line the following Wednesday, and by Friday, a formula 1 race car had been produced. In the previous chapter you learned about the basic techniques of molecular biology. In this chapter you will see how those techniques have been applied to the analysis of whole genomes. This analysis integrates ideas from classical and molecular genetics with biotechnology. introduction concept outline 18.1 Mapping Genomes Different kinds of physical maps can be generated Sequence-tagged sites provide a common language for physical maps Genetic maps provide a link to phenotypes Physical maps can be correlated with genetic maps 18.2 Whole-Genome Sequencing Genome sequencing requires larger molecular clones Whole-genome sequencing is approached in two ways: clone-by-clone and shotgun The Human Genome Project used both sequencing methods 18.3 Characterizing Genomes The Human Genome Project found fewer genes than expected Finding genes in sequence data requires computer searches Genomes contain both coding and noncoding DNA Expressed sequence tags identify genes that are transcribed SNPs are single-base differences between individuals 18.4 Genomics and Proteomics Comparative genomics reveals conserved regions in genomes Synteny allows comparison of unsequenced genomes Organelle genomes have exchanged genes with the nuclear genome Functional genomics reveals gene function at the genome level Proteomics moves from genes to proteins Large-scale screens reveal proteinprotein interactions 18.5 Applications of Genomics Genomics can help to identify infectious diseases Genomics can help improve agricultural crops Genomics raises ethical issues over ownership of genomic information 349 rav65819_ch18_349-368.indd 349 rav65819_ch18_349-368.indd 349 11/20/06 11:32:54 AM 11/20/06 11:32:54 AM 18.1 Mapping Genomes 1. Multiple copies of a segment of DNA are cut with restriction enzymes....
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rav65819_ch18_349-368 - ;;;;;;;; 18 chapter Genomics THE...

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