rav65819_ch39_773-788

rav65819_ch39_773-788 - ;;;;;;;; 39 chapter Plant Nutrition...

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Unformatted text preview: ;;;;;;;; 39 chapter Plant Nutrition and Soils VAST ENERGY INPUTS ARE REQUIRED for the ongoing construction of a plant. In this chapter, youll learn what inputs, besides energy from the Sun, a plant needs to survive. Plants, like animals, need various nutrients to remain healthy. The lack of an important nutrient may slow a plants growth or make the plant more susceptible to disease or even death. Plants acquire these nutrients mainly through photosynthesis and from the soil. In addition to contributing nutrients, the soil hosts bacteria and fungi that aid plants in obtaining nutrients in a usable form. Getting sufficient nitrogen is particularly problematic because plants cannot directly convert atmospheric nitrogen into amino acids. A few plants are able to capture animals and secrete digestive juices to make nitrogen available for absorption. introduction 39.1 Soils: The Substrates on Which Plants Depend Soil is composed of minerals, organic matter, water, air, and organisms Water and mineral availability is determined by soil characteristics Cultivation can result in soil loss and nutrient depletion pH and salinity affect water and mineral availability 39.2 Plant Nutrients Plants require nine macronutrients and seven micronutrients Food security is related to crop productivity and nutrient levels 39.3 Special Nutritional Strategies Bacteria living in close association with roots can provide nitrogen 39.4 CarbonNitrogen Balance and Global Change Mycorrhizae aid a large portion of terrestrial plants Carnivorous plants trap and digest animals to extract additional nutrients Parasitic plants exploit resources of other plants concept outline Elevated CO 2 levels can alter photosynthesis and carbon levels in plants Elevated temperature can affect respiration and carbon levels in plants 39.5 Phytoremediation Trichloroethylene may be removed by poplar trees Trinitrotoluene can be removed in limited amounts Heavy metals can be successfully removed at lower cost 773 rav65819_ch39_773-788.indd 773 rav65819_ch39_773-788.indd 773 1/25/07 12:23:31 PM 1/25/07 12:23:31 PM 39.1 Soils: The Substrates on Which Plants Depend Much of the activity that supports plant life is hidden within the soil. Soil is the highly weathered outer layer of the Earths crust. It is composed of a mixture of ingredients, which may include sand, rocks of various sizes, clay, silt, humus, and various other forms of mineral and organic matter. Pore spaces containing water and air occur between the particles. Soil is composed of minerals, organic matter, water, air, and organisms The mineral fraction of soils varies according to the composition of the rocks. The Earths crust includes about 92 naturally occurring elements (chapter 2). Most elements are found in the form of inorganic compounds called minerals; most rocks consist of several different minerals....
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2010 for the course BIO BIO1 taught by Professor Lipke during the Fall '09 term at CUNY Brooklyn.

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rav65819_ch39_773-788 - ;;;;;;;; 39 chapter Plant Nutrition...

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