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rav65819_ch43_851-868 - part VII animal form and function...

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;;;;;;;;;; part VII animal form and function 43 1 m μ chapter The Animal Body and Principles of Regulation
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WHEN PEOPLE THINK OF ANIMALS, they may think of pet dogs and cats, the animals in a zoo, on a farm, in an aquarium, or wild animals living outdoors. When thinking about the diversity of animals, people may picture the differences between the predatory lions and tigers and the herbivorous deer and antelope, or between a ferocious-looking shark and a playful dolphin. Despite the differences among these animals, they are all vertebrates. All vertebrates share the same basic body plan, with similar tissues and organs that operate in much the same way. The micrograph shows a portion of the duodenum, part of the digestive system, which is made up of multiple types of tissues. In this chapter, we begin a detailed consideration of the biology of the vertebrates and the fascinating structure and function of their bodies. We conclude this chapter by exploring the principles involved in regulation and control of complex functional systems. concept outline introduction 43.1 Organization of the Vertebrate Body Tissues are groups of cells of a single type and function Organs and organ systems provide specialized functions The general body plan of vertebrates is tube within a tube, with internal support Vertebrates have both dorsal and ventral body cavities 43.2 Epithelial Tissue Epithelium forms a barrier
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Epithelial types reflect their function 43.3 Connective Tissues Connective tissue proper may be either loose or dense Special connective tissues have unique characteristics All connective tissues have similarities 43.4 Muscle Tissue Smooth muscle is found in most organs Skeletal muscle moves the body Cardiac muscle composes the heart 43.5 Nerve Tissue Neurons sometimes extend long distances Neuroglia provide support for neurons Two divisions of the nervous system coordinate activity 43.6 Overview of Vertebrate Organ Systems Communication and integration sense and respond to the environment Skeletal support and movement are vital to all animals Regulation and maintenance of the body’s chemistry ensures continued life The body can defend itself from attackers and invaders Reproduction and development ensure the continuity of species 43.7 Homeostasis Negative feedback mechanisms keep values within a range Antagonistic effectors act in opposite directions Positive feedback mechanisms enhance a change 851 rav65819_ch43_851-868.indd 851 rav65819_ch43_851-868.indd 851 12/5/06 11:29:33 AM 12/5/06 11:29:33 AM 43.1 Organization of the Vertebrate Body in the transport of blood and help distribute substances about the body. The vertebrate body contains 11 principal organ systems.
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