rav65819_ch48_963-982

rav65819_ch48_963-982 - ; 48 chapter 963 The Digestive...

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;;;;;;;;;; 48 chapter 963 The Digestive System PLANTS AND OTHER PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMS
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can produce the organic molecules they need from inorganic components. Therefore, they are autotrophs, or self-sustaining. Animals, such as the chipmunk shown, are heterotrophs: They must consume organic molecules present in other organisms. The molecules heterotrophs eat must be digested into smaller molecules in order to be absorbed into the animal’s body. Once these products of digestion enter the body, the animal can use them for energy in cellular respiration or for the construction of the larger molecules that make up its tissues. The process of animal digestion is the focus of this chapter. introduction 48.5 The Large Intestine: Elimination of Waste Material 48.6 Variations in Vertebrate Digestive Systems 48.1 Types of Digestive Systems Invertebrate digestive systems are bags or tubes Vertebrate digestive systems include highly specialized structures molded by diet 48.2 The Mouth and Teeth: Food Capture and Bulk Processing Vertebrate teeth are adapted to types of food items The mouth is a chamber for ingestion and initial processing 48.3 The Esophagus and the Stomach: The Beginning of Digestion Muscular contractions of the esophagus move food to the stomach The stomach is a “holding station” involved in acidic breakdown of food 48.4 The Small Intestine: Breakdown and Absorption The structure of the small intestine structure is specialized for digestion and nutrient uptake Accessory organs secrete enzymes into the small intestine Absorbed nutrients move into blood or lymph capillaries Ruminants rechew regurgitated food Other herbivores have alternative strategies for digestion 48.7 Neural and Hormonal Regulation of the Digestive Tract 48.8 Accessory Organ Function The liver modiFes chemicals to maintain homeostasis Blood glucose concentration is maintained by the actions of insulin and glucagon 48.9 Food Energy, Energy Expenditure, and Essential Nutrients Exertion increases metabolic rate ±ood intake is under neuroendocrine control
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Essential nutrients are those that the body cannot manufacture concept outline 963 rav65819_ch48_963-982.indd 963 rav65819_ch48_963-982.indd 963 12/8/06 1:29:46 PM 12/8/06 1:29:46 PM 48.1 Types of Digestive Systems Heterotrophs are divided into three groups on the basis of their food sources. Animals that eat plants exclusively are classified as herbivores; common examples include algae-eating snails, sapsucking insects, and vertebrates such as cattle, horses, rabbits, and sparrows. Animals that eat other animals, such as crabs, squid, many insects, cats, eagles, trout, and frogs, are carnivores. Animals that eat both plants and other animals are omnivores. Humans are omnivores, as are pigs, bears, and crows. Invertebrate digestive systems are bags or tubes
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2010 for the course BIO BIO1 taught by Professor Lipke during the Fall '09 term at CUNY Brooklyn.

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rav65819_ch48_963-982 - ; 48 chapter 963 The Digestive...

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