{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

rav65819_ch51_1039-1066

rav65819_ch51_1039-1066 - 51 chapter The Immune System...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
;;;;;;;; 51 chapter The Immune System concept outline WHEN YOU CONSIDER HOW ANIMALS defend themselves, it is natural to think of turtles and armadillos with their obvious external armor. However, armor offers little protection against the greatest dangers vertebrates face—microorganisms and viruses. We live in a world awash with organisms too tiny to see with the naked eye, and
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
no vertebrate could long withstand their onslaught unprotected. We survive because we have evolved a variety of very effective defenses. However, our defenses are far from perfect. Some 40 million people died from influenza in 1918–1919, and more than a million people will die of malaria this year. Attempts to improve our defenses against infectious diseases are being actively researched. 51.1 The Integumentary System: The First Line of Defense The skin is a barrier to infection Mucosal epithelial surfaces also prevent entry of pathogens 51.2 Nonspecific Immunity: The Second Line of Defense Several types of cells nonspecifically eliminate invading pathogens The inflammatory response is a nonspecific response to infection or tissue injury Complement proteins and interferons aid in the elimination of pathogens Many different organisms exhibit nonspecific defenses 51.3 The Specific Immune Response: The Third Line of Defense Immunity had long been observed, but the mechanisms have only recently been understood Antigens stimulate specific immune responses Lymphocytes carry out the specific immune responses Specific immunity can be active or passive Hematopoiesis gives rise to the cells of the immune system The immune system is supported by two classes of organs Two forms of adaptive immunity have evolved 51.4 T Cells: Cell-Mediated Immunity The MHC carries self and nonself information Cytotoxic T cells eliminate virally infected cells and tumor cells Helper T cells secrete proteins that direct immune responses T cells are the primary cells that mediate transplant rejection Many cells of the immune system release cytokines 51.5 B Cells: Humoral Immunity and Antibody Production Immunoglobulin structure reveals variable regions and constant regions The five classes of immunoglobulins have different functions Immunoglobulin diversity is generated through DNA rearrangement The secondary response to an antigen is more effective than the primary response 51.6 Autoimmunity and Hypersensitivity Autoimmune diseases result from immune system attack on the body’s own tissues Allergies are caused by IgE secretion in response to antigens Delayed-type hypersensitivity is mediated by T H cells and macrophages 51.7 Antibodies in Medical Treatment and Diagnosis Blood type indicates the antigens present on an individual’s red blood cells Blood is typed by agglutination Transfusion reactions result from mismatched blood transfusions Monoclonal antibodies are a valuable tool for diagnosis and treatment 51.8
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern