rav65819_ch52_1067-1086

Rav65819_ch52_1067-1 - chapter 52 The Reproductive System BIRD SONG IN THE SPRING insects chirping outside the window frogs croaking in swamps and

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;;;;;;;;;; chapter 52 The Reproductive System BIRD SONG IN THE SPRING, insects chirping outside the window, frogs croaking in swamps, and wolves howling in a frozen northern forest are all sounds of evolution’s essential act, reproduction. These distinctive noises, as well as the bright coloration of some animals, such as the tropical golden toads in the figure, function to attract mates. Few subjects pervade our everyday thinking more than sex, and few urges are more insistent. This chapter deals with sex and reproduction among the vertebrates, including humans.
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introduction concept outline 52.1 Animal Reproductive Strategies Some species have developed novel reproductive methods Sex determination in mammals occurs in the embryo 52.2 Vertebrate Fertilization and Development Internal fertilization has led to three strategies for development of offspring Most Fshes and amphibians have external fertilization Reptiles and birds have internal fertilization and lay eggs Mammals generally do not lay eggs, but give birth to their young 52.3 Structure and Function of the Human Male Reproductive System Sperm cells are produced by the millions 52.4 Structure and Function of the Human Female Reproductive System Male accessory sex organs aid in sperm delivery Hormones regulate male reproductive function Usually only one egg is produced per menstrual cycle ±emale accessory sex organs receive sperm and provide nourishment and protection to the embryo 52.5 Contraception and Infertility Treatments Contraception is aimed at preventing fertilization or implantation Infertility occurs in both males and females Treatment of infertility often involves assisted reproductive technologies 1067
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rav65819_ch52_1067-1086.indd 1067 rav65819_ch52_1067-1086.indd 1067 12/7/06 4:28:20 PM 12/7/06 4:28:20 PM 52.1 Animal Reproductive Strategies Most animals, including humans, reproduce sexually. As described in chapter 11, sexual reproduction requires a specialized form of cell division, meiosis, to produce haploid gametes each with a single complete set of chromosomes. These gametes, including sperm and eggs (or ova ; singular ovum ), are united by fertilization to restore the diploid complement of chromosomes. The diploid fertilized egg, or zygote, develops by mitotic division into a new multicellular organism. Bacteria, archaea, protists, and multicellular animals including cnidarians and tunicates, as well as many of the more complex animals, reproduce asexually. In asexual reproduction, genetically identical cells are produced from a single parent cell through mitosis. In single-celled organisms, an individual organism divides, a process called fission, and then each part becomes a separate but identical organism. Cnidarians commonly reproduce by
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2010 for the course BIO BIO1 taught by Professor Lipke during the Fall '09 term at CUNY Brooklyn.

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Rav65819_ch52_1067-1 - chapter 52 The Reproductive System BIRD SONG IN THE SPRING insects chirping outside the window frogs croaking in swamps and

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