rav65819_ch54_1115-1144

rav65819_ch54_1115-1144 - ; part VIII ecology and behavior...

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;;;;;;;;;;;; part VIII ecology and behavior
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54 Behavioral Biology introduction ORGANISMS INTERACT WITH their environment in many ways. To understand these interactions, we need to appreciate the internal factors that shape the way an animal behaves, as well as aspects of the external environment that affect individual organisms. In this chapter, we explore the mechanisms that determine an animal’s behavior and examine the field of behavioral ecology, which investigates how natural selection has molded behavior through evolutionary time.
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chapter chapter outline 54.1 Approaches to the Study of Behavior Behavior’s two components are its immediate cause and its evolutionary origin Innate behavior does not require learning 54.2 Behavioral Genetics Rats can be artifcially selected For learning capacity Human twin studies reveal similarities independent oF environment Some behaviors appear to be controlled by a single gene 54.3 Learning Habituation occurs when organisms respond less to a stimulus over time Associative learning links stimulus with response 54.4 The Development of Behavior Parent–oFFspring interactions influence cognition and behavior Instinct and learning may interact as behavior develops 54.5 Animal Cognition 1115 54.6 Orientation and Migratory Behavior Migration oFten involves populations moving large distances Migrating animals must be capable oF orientation and navigation 54.7 Animal Communication SuccessFul reproduction depends on appropriate signals and responses Communication Facilitates group living Signals vary in their degree oF specifcity 54.8 Behavioral Ecology ±oraging behavior can directly influence individual ftness
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Territorial behavior secures resources 54.9 Reproductive Strategies and Sexual Selection Sexual selection occurs in many different ways Mating systems reflect adaptations for reproductive success 54.10 Altruism and Group Living Reciprocity may explain some altruism Kin selection proposes a direct genetic advantage to altruism 54.11 The Evolution of Social Systems Insect societies include individuals specialized for different tasks Vertebrate societies come in many forms and structures rav65819_ch54_1115-1144.indd 1115 rav65819_ch54_1115-1144.indd 1115 12/7/06 6:16:41 PM 12/7/06 6:16:41 PM 54.1 Approaches to the Study of Behavior Behavior can be defined as the way an animal responds to stimuli in its environment. A stimulus might be as simple as detection of the presence of food in the environment. In this sense, a bacterial cell “behaves” by moving toward higher concentrations of a sugar in its surrounding medium. This behavior is very simple and is well suited to the life of bacteria, allowing these organisms to live and reproduce. As animals evolved, they occupied different environments and faced diverse problems that affected
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This note was uploaded on 10/15/2010 for the course BIO BIO1 taught by Professor Lipke during the Fall '09 term at CUNY Brooklyn.

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rav65819_ch54_1115-1144 - ; part VIII ecology and behavior...

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