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rav65819_ch56_1167-1188

rav65819_ch56_1167-1188 - 56 chapter introduction ALL THE...

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introduction ALL THE ORGANISMS THAT LIVE together in a place are members of a community. The myriad of species that inhabit a tropical rain forest are a community. Indeed, every inhabited place on Earth supports its own particular array of organisms. Over time, the different species that live together have made many complex adjustments to community living, evolving together and forging relationships that give the community its character and stability. Both competition and cooperation have played key roles; in this chapter, we look at these and other factors in community ecology. Community Ecology 56.4 The Many Types of Species Interactions concept outline 56.1 Biological Communities: Species Living Together Communities have been viewed in different ways Communities change over time 56.2 The Ecological Niche Concept Fundamental niches are potential; realized niches are actual Competitive exclusion can occur when species compete for limited resources Competition may lead to resource partitioning Detecting interspecific competition can be difficult 56.3 Predator–Prey Relationships Predation strongly influences prey populations Plant adaptations defend against herbivores Animal adaptations defend against predators Mimicry allows one species to capitalize on defensive strategies of another Symbiosis involves long-term interactions Commensalism benefits one species and is neutral to the other Mutualism benefits both species Parasitism benefits one species at the expense of another Ecological processes have interactive effects Keystone species have major effects on communities 56.5 Ecological Succession, Disturbance, and Species Richness
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Succession produces a change in species composition Disturbances can play an important role in structuring communities 1167 rav65819_ch56_1167-1188.indd 1167 rav65819_ch56_1167-1188.indd 1167 12/5/06 1:15:07 PM 12/5/06 1:15:07 PM 56.1 Biological Communities: Species Living Together Almost any place on Earth is occupied by species, sometimes by many of them, as in the rain forests of the Amazon, and sometimes by only a few, as in the near-boiling waters of Yellowstone’s geysers (where a number of microbial species live). The term community refers to the species that occur at any particular locality (figure 56.1). Communities can be characterized either by their constituent species or by their properties, such as species richness (the number of species present) or primary productivity (the amount of energy produced). Interactions among community members govern many ecological and evolutionary processes. These interactions, such as predation and mutualism, affect the population biology of particular species— whether a population increases or decreases in abundance, for example—as well as the ways in which energy and nutrients cycle through the ecosystem. Moreover, the community context in many ways affects the patterns of natural selection faced by a species, and thus the evolutionary course it takes.
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