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chap9attentionmemory1 - Sleep,Attention&Memory...

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Sleep, Attention & Memory
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Lecture Overview Why We Sleep & Effects of Sleep  Deprivation Attention & Pre-Attention Sensory Memory Subliminal Priming
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Sleep Review from Last Time 5 Stages of Sleep: Stage 1 – 4 NonREM & REM A sleep cycle lasts 90-110 minutes, and people  usually have 4-5 sleep cycles per night NonREM sleep Cycles from stage 1 to 4 and then back down from 4  to 1, with later stages indicating deeper sleep REM sleep We are internally “active” but externally immobile  Dreaming occurs during REM sleep Activation-Synthesis Theory of Dreaming
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Why do we Sleep? Preservation and Protection Theory Evolutionarily, sleep came about to preserve  energy and to motivate individuals to hide away  safely and quietly at dangerous times during the  24-hour cycle The more time it takes a species to meet energy  needs and the less able that species is to hide  away, the less they will sleep (and vice versa) Cows & Horses (2-3 hrs) vs. Bats & Opossums (20hrs) Also explains diurnal vs. nocturnal behavior
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Why do we Sleep? Body Restoration Theory Non-REM   Sleep   a time for muscles and organs to rest and repair Growth hormone is secreted at much higher levels during  non-REM sleep Cell division and protein synthesis occur at higher rates  during non-REM sleep REM sleep Possibly “exercise” for neurons to help prevent the  degeneration of unused synapses Sleep may play a role in consolidating new learning In experiments, Animals and humans perform better on  perceptual-motor tasks if they are permitted REM sleep in  between training and testing Not necessarily true for verbal, factual learning of information,  although some evidence indicates that long-term memory  consolidation may be benefited by REM sleep
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Why do we Sleep?
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