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StudentsFall08_Psy1.1_Notes_Methods - MethodsofPsychology...

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Psychology 1.1 Psychology 1.1 Methods of Psychology Methods of Psychology Joanna Serafin [email protected] Fall 2008 Clever Hans ( der Kluge Hans ) Phrenology - a pseudoscience Outline Outline 0. 0. Science vs. everyday observation Science vs. everyday observation 1. 1. Research strategies Research strategies 2. 2. Statistical methods Statistical methods 3. 3. Sources of bias Sources of bias Science vs. everyday observation Science vs. everyday observation 0. Scientific study is closely related to everyday inferences 0. e.g. I remembered more information after studying in a quiet room than when I  studied while listening to music. Therefore, listening to music has negative effects  on studying. 1. When do we observe and make inferences poorly? Science vs. everyday observation Science vs. everyday observation 2. The scientific attitude is skeptical 3. Science improves natural urge to learn by: 0. Systematic data collection procedures 1. Controlling variables 2. Elimination of bias 3. Seeking alternative explanations 4. Statistical methods that show degree of confidence in a conclusion
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Limitations of Common Sense 4. Hindsight Bias 0. the mistaken belief that we could have predicted (before knowing the outcome) what would  happen 5. Overconfidence 1. the tendency to be more confident than correct 2.
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