StudentsFall08_Psy1.1_Notes_Reasoning - Psychology1.1...

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Psychology 1.1 Psychology 1.1 Ch. 10 Ch. 10 Joanna Serafin [email protected] Fall 2008 We are not abstract thinking machines, but biological survival machines. -Peter Grays Outline 0. How do People Reason? 0. Deduction 1. Analogies and Induction 1. Effects of Culture on Thought 2. Practice and Theory of Intelligence 3. Creativity How do People Reason? Reasoning - ability to derive new knowledge from already known knowledge. Intelligence – one’s general capacity to reason Deduction Deductive reasoning involves mental processes by which people derive logical conclusions that must be true if a set of premises is true (syllogism) 0. All men are mortal premise 1. Socrates is a man premise 2. Therefore, Socrates is mortal conclusion Do we reason this way everyday? Analogies and Induction 4. All living things need water. Roses need water. Therefore, roses are living things.
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5. All insects need oxygen Mice need oxygen. Therefore, mice are insects. Do conclusions follow logically from propositions? Analogies and Induction 0. Analogy – similarity in behavior, function and relationship. 2. Airplanes are analogous to birds. 3. Marriage between humans is analogous to pair-bonding in
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StudentsFall08_Psy1.1_Notes_Reasoning - Psychology1.1...

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