S10 infant development

S10 infant development - Infant Development Newborns(0-3...

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Infant Development Newborns (0-3 months) Newborns have well-developed reflexes and sensory responses for adapting to their environments Abnormalities in reflexes in first days after birth help identify hearing and visual problems, predict future deficits
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Infant Development Reflex Response Perm Biceps Short contractions shown Eye Blink Blinks/closes eye in response Patellar Extends and kicks leg Withdrawal Pulls leg up, bends knee and hip Temp Babinski Big toe up, other toes fan and curl Babkin Opens mouth, closes eyes, moves head Moro Arms and legs extended, then close to body Palmar grasp Grasps fingers and objects Plantar All toes curled as if grasping something Rooting Turns head, opens mouth, tries to suck Stepping Makes rhythmic stepping movements Sucking Sucks finger rhythmically
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Infant Development Newborn Infant states – recurring patterns of arousal ranging from alert to regular sleep Arousal patterns are formed well before birth, seen even in preemies Newborns sleep, on average, 70% of time in series of long and short naps REM sleep: Higher level in newborns than in infants Autostimulation Theory: Lots of REM sleep because of growth of neural pathways in CNS
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Infant Development Activity of Newborns REM Sleep 8-9 hrs Non-REM Sleep 8-9 hrs Drowsiness ½ to 3 hrs Alert inactivity 2-3 hrs Tracking Objects Waking activity 2-3 hrs Not alert but motor activity Crying 1-3 hrs
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Infant Development Crying Infants cry to communicate emotions Most mothers learn to distinguish between them Theories Cognitive: Piaget says sensori-motor response Psychoanalytic: Beginning of oral stage-Freud. Mothers who respond instill trust: Erikson Behavioral: Crying often evokes caregiver responses (reinforcement)
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Infant Development
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Infant Development Brain Development after Birth Brain weight is about 25% of adult brain, 75% at 2 years of age Largest portion of brain is cerebrum, covered by the cerebral cortex Four Lobes of the Brain Occipital Lobe-Mostly visual processing Temporal Lobe-Mostly auditory processing Parietal Lobe-Mostly sensation processing Frontal Lobe-Mostly reasoning and picking up of social cues.
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Infant Development
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Infant Development The brain hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum Lateralization describes brain specialization Right hemisphere: visual-spatial information including “sign language” Left hemisphere: emotions and speech
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Infant Development Neuron: Basic unit of brain and nervous system.
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Infant Development Neural migration ensures all parts of the brain are served by neurons Composed of:
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S10 infant development - Infant Development Newborns(0-3...

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