Lecture4_revised

Lecture4_revised - Psychology 110 Biological Psychology...

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Psychology 110: Biological Psychology Lecture 4: Communication between neurons
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Recap of Lecture 3 each individual neuron generates a resting membrane potential neurons transmit information via action potentials synaptic events allow neurons to integrate information to perform simple calculations
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The processing of visual information The information from 100 million photoreceptors converges on 1 million axons… …which diverge to influence billions of cortical neurons
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Outline of Lecture 4 what happens when the action potential reaches the end of the axon? what are the different types of receptor and why are they important? what are neurotransmitters, and what are the main neurotransmitters in the brain?
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Types of synapse AXODENDRITIC AXOSOMATIC AXOAXONIC
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Loewi Nobel Prize termed the unknown chemical ‘Vagusstoff’ now know it is acetylcholine
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Synaptic transmission
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Synaptic transmission Synaptic transmission takes about a millisecond and the delay is largely due to the time taken for Ca++ to enter the terminal. The number of Ca++ channels that open is proportional to the rate of arrival of action potentials. The number of vesicles released is proportional to the concentration of Ca++ in the axon terminal. Each vesicle contains the same number of molecules of neurotransmitter.
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Neurotransmitter release
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Electron microscope photograph of a synapse
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Electron microscope photograph showing neurotransmitter release
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Outline of Lecture 4 what happens when the action potential reaches the end of the axon? what are the different types of receptor and why are they important? what are neurotransmitters, and what are the main neurotansmitters in the brain?
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Ionotropic receptors: the nicotinic receptor Each receptor can bind two molecules of acetylcholine (ACh). This causes the sodium channel to open, thereby depolarizing the neuron. The nature of receptors at a synapse determine the neurotransmitter’s actions (excitatory or inhibitory). For example ACh can be linked to a Na channel (excitatory) or a Cl channel (inhibitory).
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Ion movements during post-synaptic potentials
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Excitation or inhibition? Whether the synapse is excitatory or inhibitory depends on:
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This note was uploaded on 10/16/2010 for the course PSYCH 110 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Berkeley.

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Lecture4_revised - Psychology 110 Biological Psychology...

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