Lecture5_revised

Lecture5_revised - Techniques and Methods of Neuroscience...

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Techniques and Methods of Neuroscience Lecture #5 PSY110
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Overview of Lecture #5 What questions is each technique capable of investigating? What are the strengths and weakness of the technique? How does it work? What is an example application of the technique?
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Overview of Lecture #5 1. Anatomical techniques 2. CAUSAL: Manipulation of the system (lesion methodology) 3. CORRELATIONAL: Measurement of the system
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Visualizing Brain Structure What is the structure of individual neurons (i.e. cell morphology)? Different types of neurons. Variations in the nature of neurons across different cortical regions. Do features of neuronal structure change due to experimental factors (e.g. learning, neurotransmitter upregulation, toxicity)?
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Many different staining techniques
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Regional Differences in Neuron Density and Type Based on variations in the thickness and cell density of the cortical layers, the brain can be divided into cytoarchitectonic areas
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Brodmann Areas Does structure equate with function ?
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Tracing neural pathways Afferent vs. Efferent projections (arriving vs. exiting) (inputs vs. outputs) Main methods used to trace these connections: Anterograde labeling (tracer taken up by cell body and transported to terminals) Retrograde labeling (tracer taken up by terminals and transported to cell bodies)
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Tracing neural pathways
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Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Water, which can be picked up on MRI scans, tends to diffuse down paths of least resistance, which happen to be myelinated axons, allowing connections in the brain to be identified, as well as the strength of those connections.
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Immunocytochemistry A histological method that uses radioactive antibodies or antibodies bound with a dye molecule to indicate the presence of particular proteins or peptides. Where are potentially harmful proteins located in the brain? Example: Amyloid buildup in Alzheimer’s Disease Where are specific neurotransmitters located?
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Overview of Lecture #5 1. Anatomical techniques 2. CAUSAL: Manipulation of the system (lesion methodology) 3. CORRELATIONAL: Measurement of the system
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Video example: parieto- temporal stroke patient
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Ideomotor Apraxia
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Lecture5_revised - Techniques and Methods of Neuroscience...

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