First Lecture Definitions

First Lecture Definitions - Study Notes for the First...

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Study Notes for the First Lecture: Words NATURE: 1. The inherent character of a thing 2. the creative or controlling force in the universe 3. the external world in its entirety 4. man’s original and natural condition 5. natural scenery Webster’s Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary , 1965 6. Everything that is not culture, ie, everything that exists except human inventions Hmmm: Remove first iphone and ipods, then computers, then television, then radios, then cars, planes, trains, bicycles, indoor plumbing, electricity, oil lamps, roads, bridges, combustion engines, boats, bridges, dams, clothing, houses, the wheel, tools, fire: Nature. Natus , past participle of nasci , “to be born.” The Latin for “nature” is natura : the world of things that are born. THE NATURAL WORLD 1. The world as it consists of plants, animals, water, soil, rocks, weather and their interactions. In opposition to the built world. Used because it is less ideologically charged than “nature” ECOLOGY: 1. A branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their environment. 2. The totality or pattern of relations between organisms and their environment. Webster’s 7 th New Collegiate Dictionary , 1965 The term was coined by a German scientist Ernst Haekel in 1866. He borrowed the Greek word oikos ( οΐκος ) which means “house” or “household.” So, the study of the household of nature. One of the early definitions of ecology by an American scientist came in an article by Henry Chandler Cowles in 1899, “The Ecological Relations of the Vegetation on the Sand Dunes of Lake Michigan.” He wrote: “The province of ecology is to consider the mutual relations between plants and their environments.” He proposed that the best means for doing this was “to study the order of succession of the plant societies in the development of a region” and “to endeavor to discover the laws which govern panoramic changes.” Ecology, he added, is “a study in dynamics.”
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Frederick Clemens (1874-1945) in a series of publications, Research Methods in Ecology (1905), Plant Succession (1916) and an article entitled “Nature and Structure of the Climax,” Journal of Ecology , 1936, developed the idea that a mature plant “community” should be thought of as itself “a complex organism inseparably connected with its climate. .” So that ecology became associated with the ideas of equilibrium and harmony in the natural world—always disturbed and in a dynamic of alteration from external events but always tending toward equilibrium again. The classic textbook
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First Lecture Definitions - Study Notes for the First...

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