Acid_Base_Disorders_BB_

Acid_Base_Disorders_BB_ - Acid Base Balance-Basic Concepts...

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Acid Base Balance-Basic Concepts Acidity and alkalinity is measured by pH. The largest source of acid within the body is carbonic acid CO 2 concentration is an indirect measurement of acidity Concentration of CO 2 is expressed as PCO 2 The lungs or respiratory system primarily regulate CO 2 levels The largest source of base is bicarbonate It is regulated primarily by the kidneys or renal system Respiratory acidosis is the result of CO 2 retention Respiratory alkalosis is the result of a decrease in CO 2 levels due to excessive loss-hyperventilation Metabolic acidosis is the result of retention of fixed acids or excessive loss of bases Metabolic alkalosis is the result of excessive loss of fixed acids or retention of bases
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Acid-Base Disorders 4 major types Respiratory acidosis Respiratory alkalosis Metabolic acidosis Metabolic alkalosis Combinations of these disorders also occur
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Pathophysiology of Respiratory Acidosis Excess of acid in respect to base caused by a retention of CO 2 Occurs due to the inability of lungs to expire CO 2 • As level of CO 2 rises (hypercapnia) more H 2 CO 3 is formed and pH becomes more acid Could be acute or chronic (renal compensation)
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Etiology or Causes of Respiratory Acidemia Diseases of the respiratory system-Hypoventilation COPD, Pneumonia, pulmonary edema, asthma Inhibition of the medullary respiratory center medications such as sedatives, opiates, anesthesia Sleep apnea, frequently due to obesity • Excessive CO 2 production Overfeeding, especially with high CHO diet during nutrition support Neuromuscular defects ALS, chest wall injury or deformity, bronchospasms
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Respiratory Acidosis Clinical Manifestations Decreased pH – Elevated pCO 2 Reduced oxygen levels Restlessness, convulsions, coma Treatment Correct underlying cause Oxygen administration Mechanical ventilation Changes in macronutrients
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Acid_Base_Disorders_BB_ - Acid Base Balance-Basic Concepts...

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