Fluid and Electrolytes.ppt

Fluid and Electrolytes.ppt - Cells are the functional unit...

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Body Fluids Cells are the functional unit of the body A stable environment is required for cells to perform their individual functions —this includes a steady supply of nutrients a continuous removal of metabolic wastes Regulation of body fluids maintains a stable environment All body fluids are dilute solutions of water and dissolved substances— solutes Each cell has its own separate environment and differences exist among cells in different tissues Despite wide daily variations in intake of water and minerals that function as electrolytes, the body strives to maintain a stable internal environment to maintain physiologic functioning - homeostasis When normal homeostatic mechanisms are rendered ineffective by disease or injury, or when intakes/losses exceed the body’s normal regulatory capacities, the internal environment and, ultimately cell functions, are disrupted. Knowledge of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance is important for understanding many aspects of nutrition in health and disease.
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Water Water is the principal component of the human body Closer to being a universal solvent than any other material Participates actively in metabolic and biochemical reactions Transport medium Provides form and structure to cells through turgor Maintains the physical and chemical constancy of body fluids Helps stabilize body temperature
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Total Body Water (TBW) Body water is related to body fat, age and gender Average adult male is 60% water by weight the average female is 50-55% TBW depends on the amount of fat present in the body Since fat contains little water, TBW as a % of body weight, decreases with increasing body fat Preterm infants may be as much as 80% water by weight By age 1 yr, TBW is only 65% Body water increases upto adulthood Water content of the fat-free body mass is remarkably constant.
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Distribution of Body Water Body fluids maintained in separate spaces or compartments Intracellular water = ICW Water within cells ~ 2/3 of body water Extracellular water = ECW Water outside the cells ~ 1/3 of BW Consisists of Intercellular (interstitial) water = between cells Intravascular – plasma-liquid component of blood Transcellular – tears etc. Edema = abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces “Third spacing”
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Body Fluid Compartments Extracellular fluid serve as a conduit between cells and organs regulate intracellular volume Plasma is a route of rapid transit of nutrients like oxygen and glucose waste products like carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes
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Fluid and Electrolytes.ppt - Cells are the functional unit...

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