Chapter 1 (Kinney) - Ch.1Alcohol:HistoryandSociety'sView...

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Ch. 1 Alcohol: History and Society's View Once Upon A Time o evidence of alcohol in Neolithic times Uses of Alcohol o ritual use § believed to be magic § sacrifices o convivial use § wine for the upper class § ancient Rome and Greece o medical use § antiseptic § killed germs § safer than water to drink § only for dietary use § beer was given as wage in Ancient Egypt (nutritious) § anesthetic § lessened pain § sedative § relaxant § calms CNS § irritant o customs § contributed to the growth of agriculture § libation § rules in how to drink across cultures § ritualized use § less alcohol problems § no rules in the United States § more problems Fermentation and Discovery of Distillation
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o fermentation § a natural process which occurs when yeasts combine with plants § the sugar in the plants exposed to yeasts, produces an enzyme, which in turn converts sugar into alcohol § sugar in plants + yeast = alcohol § up to 15% § more than 15% would kill the yeast o distillation (10th century) § produced by boiling a fermented brew and catching alcohol steam § alcohol boils at 172 degrees (water at 212 degrees) § Bourbon, Scotch, etc. § distillation produces higher alcohol concentration § up to 93% Alcohol Use in America o the explorers and colonists § arrived on Mayflower o Spanish grapevines § brought by Spanish missionaries o 1st distillery on Staten Island in 1640 o drinking was accepted in early colonies Theories to Explain Alcohol Use o to reduce of anxiety o to gain feelings of power § personal power § social power o transcendence: to alter consciousness o expectations § peer pressure § parental standards § legislative approaches o myths § a heavy reliance on the myths § $100 billion industry Alcohol Problems: The Fly in the Ointment
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o Problems as Sin or Moral Failing § Drunkenness o Problems as a Legal Issue § prohibition § control of supply o America's Response to Alcohol Problems § colonial times § family-centered until 1800's § after industrialization § more alcoholic abuse § Temperance Movement § a belief in the efficacy of law to resolve human problems § Child labor, prison reform, women's rights, abolition, etc. § first opposed to only excessive drinking and distilled liquor § later against all alcohol § Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) § Anti-Saloon League Rumrunners, Moonshiners, and Bootleggers o Revolutionary Rumrunners § Moonshine whiskey § Distillation § Mash + Yeast = Alcohol
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Chapter 1 (Kinney) - Ch.1Alcohol:HistoryandSociety'sView...

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