Chapter 3 (Kinney) - Ch. 3 Alcohol and the Body Antabuse...

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Ch. 3 Alcohol and the Body Antabuse – medication for alcoholics, stops the metabolism at acetaldehyde, unsuccessful Ingestion and Absorption o Alcohol has empty calories o Alcohol requires no digestion o Without any digestive juices, it can be absorbed by the bloodstream and transported to all parts of the body. o Small amount absorbed in mouth o 20% absorbed in stomach § First-pass metabolism § The presence of food dilutes the alcohol and diminishes its irritant properties § Gender differences - Women have lower ADH levels (an enzyme that breaks down alcohol) - Women have a higher blood alcohol concentration. - Higher concentration of alcohol is absorbed more quickly. - Carbon dioxide increases the speed of absorption. o 80% absorbed in small intestine § Pyloric valve controls the passage of the stomach’s contents into the small intestine. § Absorbed into bloodstream § Distributed throughout body § Pylorospasm - Pyloric valve in the closed position due to high concentration of alcohol - Cause of irritation and vomiting - A self-protective mechanism Determinants of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) o Amount consumed o Size of individual o Rate of absorption § Concentration of alcohol § Stomach contents - Food impedes passage of alcohol § Carbonation of beverage - Carbonation speeds absorption o Differences in Women § Women have a higher proportion of fat and lower amounts of water - Alcohol is not fat soluble § Differences in weight. - A 120-pound woman will have BAC 0.04 after 1 drink § Less Gastric ADH - Metabolizes up to 30% alcohol in males - Women have more alcohol absorption occurring in the small intestine - Gastric ADH decreases with heavy drinking
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- Women have 25% higher BAC Breakdown and Removal o Elimination § Removal unchanged § Small amounts leave unmetabolized through sweat, urine, and breath (5% only) o Metabolism of alcohol § Alcohol→ Acetaldehyde - Accompanied by an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
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Chapter 3 (Kinney) - Ch. 3 Alcohol and the Body Antabuse...

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